Strona glowna Porownaj panstwa Spis panstw Spis pol

Fraza:

Porownanie Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2008) - Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2006)

Porownanie Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2008) z Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2006)

Pokaz tylko zmiany

  Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2008)Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2006)
Afganistan Afganistan - Jamiat-e Islami (Society of Islam) [former President Burhanuddin RABBANI]; Ittihad-e Islami (Islamic Union dla the Liberation of Afganistan) [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; there are also small monarchist, communist, and democratic groups
Albania Albania Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front dla Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA] Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front dla Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Erion VELIAJ]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Algieria Algieria The Algierian Human Rights League or LADDH [Hocine ZEHOUANE]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET] The Algierian Human Rights League or LADH or LADDH [Yahia Ali ABDENOUR]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]
Samoa Amerykanskie Samoa Amerykanskie NA NA
Andora Andora NA NA
Angola Angola Front dla the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]


note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle dla the independence of Cabinda Province ended after BEMBE's faction signed a peace accord w sierpien 2006; other factions have since demobilized under provisions of the accord, although the two main faction leaders have not acceded to the accord
Front dla the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]


note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle dla the independence of Cabinda Province has largely ended
Anguilla Anguilla NA NA
Antigua i Barbuda Antigua i Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL] Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Argentyna Argentyna Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union dla employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); Roman Catholic Church; students Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union dla employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); Roman Catholic Church; students
Armenia Armenia Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN], Aylentrank (Impeachment) [Nikol PASHINYAN] Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Aruba Aruba NA NA
Austria Austria Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations w the areas of environment and human rights Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations w the areas of environment and human rights
Azerbejdzan Azerbejdzan Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbejdzani Forces (UPAF); Karabakh Liberation Organization Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbejdzani Forces (UPAF)
Bahamy Bahamy NA NA
Bahrajn Bahrajn Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically w 1994-97 and have recently engaged w protests z occasional low-level violence; protests related to a host of issues, including the 2002 constitution, elections, unemployment, and release of detainees; Sunni Islamist legislators support a greater role dla Shari'a w daily life; several small leftist and other groups are active Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically w 1994-97 and have recently engaged w protests and marches, demanding that more power be vested w the elected Council of Representatives and that the government do more to decrease unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
Bangladesz Bangladesz NA NA
Barbados Barbados Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Patrick FROST]; Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, which includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public Workers [Joseph GODDARD] Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]
Bialorus Bialorus Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Bialorusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Bialorusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Bialorusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; For Freedom (unregistered) [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dmitriy DASHKEVICH, Sergey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS] Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Bialorusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Alyaksandr YAROSHUK]; Bialorusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Bialorusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dzmitryy DASHKEVICH, Syarhey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]
Belgia Belgia Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Przemysl; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants Christian, Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Przemysl; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
Belize Belize Society dla the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Gustavo PERERA]; Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ]; National Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ] Society dla the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele CATZIM]
Benin Benin NA NA
Bermudy Bermudy Bermudy Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermudy Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermudy Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermudy Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES] Bermudy Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermudy Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermudy Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermudy Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bhutan Bhutan Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indien merchant community; United Front dla Democracy (exiled) Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indien merchant community; United Front dla Democracy (exiled)
Boliwia Boliwia Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Boliwia or CSUTCB Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Boliwia or CSUTCB [Roman LOAYZA]
Bosnia i Hercegowina Bosnia i Hercegowina NA NA
Botswana Botswana NA NA
Brazylia Brazylia Landless Workers' Movement or MST; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze NA NA
Brunei Brunei NA NA
Bulgaria Bulgaria Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups z various agendas Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups z various agendas
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]; Burkinabe Movement dla Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]; Group of 14 luty [Benewende STANISLAS]; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE]; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country w both organizations and communities Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement dla Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 luty; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country w both organizations and communities
Birma Birma Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC (based w Tajlandia); Federation of Trade Unions-Birma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates); National Coalition Government of the Union of Birma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government w exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly w 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents w grudzien 1990 to form parallel government w exile); Kachin Niepodleglosc Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; National Council-Union of Birma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]; 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement) [MIN KO NAING] National Coalition Government of the Union of Birma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government w exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly w 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents w grudzien 1990 to form parallel government w exile); Kachin Niepodleglosc Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA; Union Solidarity and Development Association or USDA (pro-regime, a social and political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]
Burundi Burundi none none
Kambodza Kambodza NA NA
Kamerun Kamerun Southern Kamerun National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president] Southern Kamerun National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
Kanada Kanada NA NA
Republika Zielonego Przyladka Republika Zielonego Przyladka NA NA
Kajmany Kajmany NA NA
Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie NA NA
Czad Czad NA NA
Chile Chile revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
Chiny Chiny no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups
Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia none none
Wyspy Kokosowe Wyspy Kokosowe none none
Kolumbia Kolumbia two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest illegal paramilitary group, a roughly organized umbrella group of disparate paramilitary forces, is United Self-Defense Groups of Kolumbia or AUC
Komory Komory NA NA
Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna NA NA
Kongo, Republika Kongo, Republika Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Wyspy Cooka Wyspy Cooka NA NA
Kostaryka Kostaryka Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Kostarykan Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Kostarykan Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO; Kostarykan Solidarity Movement; Kostarykan Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP [Rafael CARRILLO]; Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association dla Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP [Albino VARGAS]; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert BROWN] Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Kostarykan Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association dla Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert BROWN]
Cote d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]; Rally of Houphouetists dla Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE] NA
Chorwacja Chorwacja NA NA
Kuba Kuba NA NA
Cypr Cypr Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled) Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
Czechy Czechy Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Milan STECH] Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Milan STECH]
Dania Dania NA NA
Dzibuti Dzibuti Union dla Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union dla Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, and UDJ) Union dla Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union dla Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, UDJ, and PDD) [Ahmed Dini AHMED]
Dominika Dominika Dominika Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party) Dominika Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Republika Dominikanska Republika Dominikanska Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular Organizations or COP; Foundation dla Institution-Building and Justice (FINJUS) Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular Organizations or COP; Foundation dla Institution-Building and Justice (FINJUS)
Timor Wschodni Timor Wschodni - Popular Council dla the Defense of the Democratic Republic of Timor Wschodni or CPD-RDTL [Antonio-Aitahan MATAK] is largest political pressure group; dissatisfied veterans of struggle against Indonezja, led by one-time government advisor Cornelio GAMA (also known as L-7), also play an important role w pressuring government
Ekwador Ekwador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ekwador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ekwador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president] Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ekwador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ekwador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
Egipt Egipt despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained w practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated z the government are officially sanctioned despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood dla his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained w practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned
Salwador Salwador labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of Salwador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of Salwador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of Salwador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of Salwador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Gwinea Równikowa Gwinea Równikowa NA NA
Erytrea Erytrea Erytrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ (also including Erytrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as the Abu Sihel Movement)); Erytrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Erytrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Erytrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Erytrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]; Erytrean Democratic Party (EDP) [HAGOS, Mesfin] Erytrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ (also including Erytrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as the Abu Sihel Movement)); Erytrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Erytrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Erytrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Erytrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]
Estonia Estonia Nochnoy Dozor/Night Watch anti-fascist movement (leader Alexander KOROBOV) NA
Etiopia Etiopia Etiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa] Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union Front or ARDUF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]; Oromo National Liberation Front or ONLF
Falklandy Falklandy none none
Wyspy Owcze Wyspy Owcze NA NA
Fidzi Fidzi NA NA
Francja Francja historically-Communist labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, approximately 700,000 members (claimed); left-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, approximately 803,000 members (claimed); independent labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere) or FO, 300,000 members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) or CGC, 196,000 members (claimed); employers' union (Mouvement des Entreprises de Francja) or MEDEF, 750,000 companies as members (claimed)


Gujana Francuska: NA


Gwadelupa: Christian Movement dla the Liberation of Gwadelupa or KLPG; General Federation of Gwadelupa Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Gwadelupa Workers or UGTG; Movement dla an Independent Gwadelupa or MPGI; The Socialist Renewal Movement


Martynika: Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union dla Martynika Workers or CSTM; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP


Reunion: NA
historically-Communist labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, approximately 700,000 members (claimed); left-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, approximately 889,000 members (claimed); independent labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere) or FO, 300,000 members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) or CGC, 196,000 members (claimed); employers' union (Mouvement des Entreprises de Francja) or MEDEF, 750,000 companies as members (claimed)
Gujana Francuska Gujana Francuska - NA
Polinezja Francuska Polinezja Francuska NA NA
Gabon Gabon NA NA
Gambia Gambia NA NA
Georgia Georgia Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government w exile; separatists w the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government w exile; separatists w the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; supporters of former President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA ousted w 1991
Niemcy Niemcy business associations and employers' organizations; religious, trade unions, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups business associations, employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
Ghana Ghana NA NA
Gibraltar Gibraltar Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
Grecja Grecja General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]; Federation of Greek Przemysl or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]; Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS] General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Khristos POLYZOGOPOULOS]; Federation of Greek Przemysl or SEV [Odysseas KYRIAKOPOULOS]; Civil Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Grenlandia Grenlandia NA NA
Grenada Grenada NA NA
Gwadelupa Gwadelupa - Christian Movement dla the Liberation of Gwadelupa or KLPG; General Federation of Gwadelupa Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Gwadelupa Workers or UGTG; Movement dla Independent Gwadelupa or MPGI; The Socialist Renewal Movement
Guam Guam NA NA
Gwatemala Gwatemala Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee dla Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee dla Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
Guernsey Guernsey none none
Gwinea Gwinea National Confederation of Gwinean Workers - Labor Union of Gwinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance: National Confederation of Gwinean Workers [Rabiatou Sarah DIALLO] and Labor Union of Gwinean Workers [Dr. Ibrahima FOFANA]; Syndicate of Gwinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG [Dr. Louis M'Bemba SOUMAH]; National Council of Civil Society Organizations of Gwinea CNOSCG [Ben Sekou SYLLA] Student and teacher unions
Gwinea Bissau Gwinea Bissau NA NA
Gujana Gujana Amerindian People's Association; Gujana Citizens Initiative; Gujana Bar Association; Gujana Human Rights Association; Gujana Public Service Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress Amerindian People's Association; Gujana Citizens Initiative; Gujana Bar Association; Gujana Human Rights Association; Gujana Public Service Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress
Haiti Haiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church; Protestant Federation of Haiti Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; Group of 184 Civil Society Organizations, or G-184 [Andy APAID]; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church; Protestant Federation of Haiti
Watykan Watykan none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers) none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Honduras Honduras Committee dla the Defense of Human Rights w Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH Committee dla the Defense of Human Rights w Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
Hong Kong Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-Chiny); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Przemysl; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-Chiny) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance w Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement w Chiny [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Tajwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHARNWUT, exco member] Article 45 Concern Group (pro-democracy); Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-Chiny); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Przemysl; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-Chiny) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance w Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement w Chiny [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Tajwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHAN, exco member]
Wegry Wegry NA NA
Islandia Islandia NA NA
Indie Indie numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast
Indonezja Indonezja NA NA
Iran Iran the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) was Iran's sole political party until its dissolution w 1987; Iran now has a variety of groups engaged w political activity; some are oriented along political lines or based on an identity group; others are more akin to professional political parties seeking members and recommending candidates dla office; some are active participants w the Revolution's political life while others reject the state; political pressure groups conduct most of Iran's political activities; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader, Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh), Islamic Engineers Society, and Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat); active pro-reform student groups include the Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU); opposition groups include Freedom Movement of Iran, the National Front, Marz-e Por Gohar, Baluchistan People's Party (BPP), and various ethnic and Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been repressed by the government include Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI), Komala, Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO), People's Fedayeen, Jundallah, and the People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK) political pressure groups conduct most of Iran's political activities; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat), Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh), and Islamic Engineers Society; active pro-reform student groups include the Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU); opposition groups include Freedom Movement of Iran, the National Front, Marz-e Por Gohar, and various ethnic and Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, and Komala
Irak Irak an insurgency against the Government of Irak and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas north, northeast, and west of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency consists principally of Sunni Arabs z a shared desire to oust the Coalition, end US influence w Irak, and reassert Sunni Arab dominance; a number of predominantly Shia militias, some associated z political parties, challenge governmental authority w Baghdad and southern Irak an insurgency against the Iraki Transitional Government and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas west and north of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency is led principally by Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence w Irak
Irlandia Irlandia NA NA
Wyspa Man Wyspa Man none none
Izrael Izrael Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions w the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; YESHA Council of Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses Izraeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; Peace Now supports territorial concessions w the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; Yesha (settler) Council promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem monitors human rights abuses
Wlochy Wlochy Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNO], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist) Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Savino PEZZOTTA], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)
Jamajka Jamajka New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists) New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Japonia Japonia NA NA
Jersey Jersey none none
Jordania Jordania Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordania Bar Association [Hussein Mujalli, chairman]; Jordaniaian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Salem AL-FALAHAT, controller general] Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordania Bar Association [Hussein Mujalli, chairman]; Jordaniaian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Salem AL-FALAHAT, secretary general]
Kazachstan Kazachstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For a Just Kazachstan [Bolat ABILOV]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazachstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazachstan [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAI]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV] Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For a Just Kazachstan [Bolat ABILOV, Altynbek SARSENBAYEV]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Kazachstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency International [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV]
Kenia Kenia Council of Islamic Preachers of Kenia or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Kenia Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; labor unions; Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenia or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenia Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY] human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenia or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenia Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
Kiribati Kiribati NA NA
Polnocna Korea Polnocna Korea none none
Poludniowa Korea Poludniowa Korea Federation of Korean Przemysl; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations Federation of Korean Przemysl; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations
Kuwejt Kuwejt a number of political groups act as de facto parties; several legislative blocs operate w the National Assembly: tribal groups, merchants, Shi'a activists, Islamists, secular liberals and pro-government deputies; w mid-2006, a coalition of Islamists, liberals, and Shia campaigned successfully dla electoral reform to reduce corruption a number of political groups act as de facto parties; several legislative blocs operate w the National Assembly: tribal groups, merchants, Shi'a activists, Islamists, and secular liberals
Kirgistan Kirgistan Adilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition dla Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAYEVA] Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs
Laos Laos political parties and groups other than LPRP are proscribed noncommunist political groups proscribed; most opposition leaders fled the country w 1975
Lotwa Lotwa Headquarters dla the Protection of Rosjan Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV] Headquarters dla the Protection of Rosjan Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]
Liban Liban none none
Lesotho Lesotho NA NA
Liberia Liberia Demobilized former military officers NA
Libia Libia various Arab nationalist movements z almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libian exile movement exists, primarily based w London, but has little influence various Arab nationalist movements z almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libian exile movement exists, primarily based w London, but has little influence
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein NA NA
Litwa Litwa NA NA
Luksemburg Luksemburg ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union) ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
Makau Makau NA NA
Macedonia Macedonia Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Swiat Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV] Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; Swiat Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Madagaskar Madagaskar Committee dla the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee dla National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM Committee dla the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee dla National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Malawi Malawi NA NA
Malezja Malezja NA NA
Malediwy Malediwy various unregistered political parties various unregistered political parties
Mali Mali - Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
Malta Malta NA NA
Wyspy Marshalla Wyspy Marshalla NA NA
Martynika Martynika - Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union dla Martynika Workers or CSTM [Marc PULVAR]; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP
Mauretania Mauretania Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; General Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Islamists; Mauretanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general] Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; General Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Islamists; Mauretanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]
Mauritius Mauritius various labor unions various labor unions
Majotta Majotta NA NA
Meksyk Meksyk Broad Progressive Front or FAP; Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator dla Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Przemysl or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator dla Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Przemysl or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants or CROC; Roman Catholic Church
Moldawia Moldawia NA NA
Monako Monako NA NA
Mongolia Mongolia NA NA
Montserrat Montserrat NA NA
Maroko Maroko Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Maroko or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK] Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Maroko or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
Mozambik Mozambik Institute dla Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement dla Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general] Institute dla Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement dla Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
Namibia Namibia NA NA
Nauru Nauru NA NA
Nepal Nepal Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA, chairman; Dr. Baburam BHATTARAI]; numerous small, left-leaning student groups w the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA, chairman; Dr. Baburam BHATTARAI]; numerous small, left-leaning student groups w the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
Holandia Holandia Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Rene PAAS]; Confederation of Holandia Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]; Federation dla Small and Medium-sized businesses or MBK [Loek HERMANS]; Holandia Trade Union Federation or FNV [Agnes JONGERIUS]; Social Economic Council or SER [ Alexander RINNOOY Kan]; Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Ad VERHOEVEN] Holandia Trade Union Federation or FNV (consisting of a merger of Socialist and Catholic trade unions); Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV; Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; Interchurch Peace Council or IKV; large multinational firms; the nondenominational Federation of Holandia Enterprises
Antyle Holenderskie Antyle Holenderskie Unions (AVBO) and Employers Association (VBC) Unions (AVBO) and Employers Association (VBC)
Nowa Kaledonia Nowa Kaledonia NA NA
Nowa Zelandia Nowa Zelandia NA NA
Nikaragua Nikaragua National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
Niger Niger The Nigerien Movement dla Justice or MNJ, a predominantly Tuareg rebel group demanding concessions including a greater share of the country's uranium revenues from the government Coalition Against a High Cost of Living [Nouhou ARZIKA]
Nigeria Nigeria NA NA
Niue Niue NA NA
Wyspa Norfolk Wyspa Norfolk none none
Mariany Polnocne Mariany Polnocne NA NA
Norwegia Norwegia NA NA
Oman Oman none none
Pakistan Pakistan military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Palau Palau NA NA
Panama Panama Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua-Nowa Gwinea Papua-Nowa Gwinea NA NA
Paragwaj Paragwaj Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]; National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]; Paragwajan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo] Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]; National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]; Paragwajan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Peru Peru leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)] leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Filipiny Filipiny AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Sunny Rose MADAMBA, Ernesto PABLO, and Edgar VALDEZ]; AVE [Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Filipiny [Ernesto GIDAYA] AKBAYAN [Reps. Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rep. Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Rep. Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Rep. Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Reps. Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; APEC [Reps. Ernesto PABLO, Edgar VALDEZ]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Reps. Edgar VALDEZ, Ernesto PABLO, and Sunny Rose MADAMBA]; AVE [Rep. Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Reps. Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Reps. Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Rep. Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Rep. Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Rep. Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Rep. Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Rep. Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Filipiny [Rep. Ernesto GIDAYA] (2006)
Pitcairn Pitcairn none none
Polska Polska All Polska Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK] All Polska Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Jozef GLEMP]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK]
Portugalia Portugalia NA NA
Portoryko Portoryko Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces dla National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces dla National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
Katar Katar none none
Reunion Reunion - NA
Rumunia Rumunia various human rights and professional associations various human rights and professional associations
Rosja Rosja NA NA
Ruanda Ruanda IBUKA - association of genocide survivors IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
Swieta Helena Swieta Helena none none
Saint Kitts i Nevis Saint Kitts i Nevis NA NA
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia NA NA
Saint-Pierre i Miquelon Saint-Pierre i Miquelon NA NA
Saint Vincent i Grenadyny Saint Vincent i Grenadyny NA NA
Samoa Samoa NA NA
San Marino San Marino NA NA
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca NA NA
Arabia Saudyjska Arabia Saudyjska none none
Senegal Senegal labor; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; students; teachers labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers
Seszele Seszele Roman Catholic Church; trade unions Roman Catholic Church; trade unions
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone trade unions and student unions trade unions and student unions
Singapur Singapur NA NA
Slowacja Slowacja Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; Entrepreneurs Association of Slowacja or ZPS; The Business Alliance of Slowacja or PAS Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Slowenia Slowenia NA NA
Wyspy Salomona Wyspy Salomona Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Wyspy Salomona w a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003 Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Wyspy Salomona w a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
Somalia Somalia numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both w support and w opposition to the transitional government numerous clan and sub-clan factions are currently vying dla power
Republika Poludniowej Afryki Republika Poludniowej Afryki Congress of Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are w a formal alliance z the ANC Congress of Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are w a formal alliance z the ANC
Hiszpania Hiszpania Association dla Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish dla "Enough is Enough"; grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized w kwiecien 1977); Nunca Mais (Galician dla "Never Again"; formed w response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO. business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized w kwiecien 1977); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.; Nunca Mas (Galician dla "Never Again"; formed w response to the oil tanker Prestige oil spill)
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting dla a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups; Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) or "Karuna group" [Vinayagamurthi MURALITHARAN] (paramilitary breakaway from LTTE and fighting LTTE) Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting dla a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
Sudan Sudan Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI] Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Surinam Surinam Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]; Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]; Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD] Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]; Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]; Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
Suazi Suazi NA NA
Szwecja Szwecja NA NA
Szwajcaria Szwajcaria NA NA
Syria Syria Damascus Declaration National Council [Riyad SEIF, secretary general] (a broad alliance of opposition groups and individuals including: Committee dla Revival of Civil Society [Michel KILO, Riyad SEIF]; Communist Action Party [Fateh JAMOUS]; Kurdish Democratic Alliance; Kurdish Democratic Front; Liberal Nationalists' Movement; National Democratic Front; National Democratic Rally; and Syrian Human Rights Society or HRAS [Fawed FAWUZ]); National Salvation Front (alliance between former Vice President Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, the SMB, and other small opposition groups); Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Sadr al-Din al-BAYANUNI]; (operates w exile w London; endorsed the Damascus Declaration but is not an official member) Kurdish Democratic Alliance (includes several groups but has no designated leader); Kurdish Democratic Front (includes several groups but has no designated leader); Muslim Brotherhood (operates w exile w London) [Sadr al-Din al-BAYANUNI]; National Democratic Front [Hassan Abd al-AZIM]
Tajwan Tajwan Tajwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups


note: debate on Tajwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Tajwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties w Tajwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that the island currently enjoys sovereign independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Tajwan's people must have the deciding voice; public opinion polls consistently show a substantial majority of Tajwan people supports maintaining Tajwan's status quo dla the foreseeable future; advocates of Tajwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify z mainland Chiny; goals of the Tajwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Tajwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Tajwan independence include the Swiat United Formosans dla Niepodleglosc and the Organization dla Tajwan Nation Building
Tajwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups


note: debate on Tajwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Tajwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties w Tajwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that Tajwan currently enjoys de facto independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Tajwan's people must have the deciding voice; advocates of Tajwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify z mainland Chiny; goals of the Tajwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Tajwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Tajwan independence include the Swiat United Formosans dla Niepodleglosc and the Organization dla Tajwan Nation Building
Tadzykistan Tadzykistan unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; People's Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note - this is a SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV] unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; People's Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note - this is the SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
Tanzania Tanzania NA NA
Tajlandia Tajlandia NA NA
Togo Togo NA NA
Tokelau Tokelau none none
Tonga Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE] Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Trynidad i Tobago Trynidad i Tobago Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR] Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
Tunezja Tunezja 18 pazdziernik Group [collective leadership]; Tunezjan League dla Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; note - the Islamist Party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
Turcja Turcja Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU] Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan NA NA
Turks i Caicos Turks i Caicos NA NA
Tuvalu Tuvalu none none
Uganda Uganda - Popular Resistance Against a Life President or PRALP
Ukraina Ukraina Committee of Voters of Ukraina [Ihor POPOV]; Peoples' Self-Defense [Yuriy LUTSENKO] Committee of Voters of Ukraina [Ihor POPOV]
Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie NA NA
Wielka Brytania Wielka Brytania Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
Stany Zjednoczone Stany Zjednoczone NA NA
Urugwaj Urugwaj Architect's Society of Urugwaj (professional organization); Catholic Church; Chamber of Urugwajan Przemysl (manufacturer's association); Chemist and Pharmaceutical Association (professional organization); PIT-CNT (powerful federation of Urugwajan unions); Rural Association of Urugwaj (rancher's association); students; Urugwajan Construction League Architect's Society of Urugwaj (professional organization); Catholic Church; Chamber of Urugwajan Przemysl (manufacturer's association); Chemist and Pharmaceutical Association (professional organization); PIT-CNT (powerful federation of Urugwajan unions); Rural Association of Urugwaj (rancher's association); students; Urugwajan Construction League
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee dla the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 grudzien 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman] Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 grudzien 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasilia INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigara KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Tolib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
Vanuatu Vanuatu NA NA
Wenezuela Wenezuela FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Wenezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action) FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Wenezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
Wietnam Wietnam groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by government - 8406 Bloc; Democratic Party of Wietnam or DPV; People's Democratic Party Wietnam or PDP-VN; Alliance dla Democracy (2006) none
Wyspy Dziewicze Wyspy Dziewicze NA NA
Wallis i Futuna Wallis i Futuna NA NA
Sahara Zachodnia Sahara Zachodnia none none
Jemen Jemen NA NA
Zambia Zambia NA NA
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Crisis w Zimbabwe Coalition [Xolani ZITHA]; National Konstytucjaal Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE] Crisis w Zimbabwe Coalition [Wellington CHIBEBE]; National Konstytucjaal Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Lovemore MATOMBO]
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