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Armenia (2008)

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Armenia 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 19.5% (male 307,610/female 271,381)

15-64 years: 69.3% (male 962,126/female 1,098,192)

65 years and over: 11.2% (male 132,705/female 199,636) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Lotniska 12 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Terytorium total: 29,800 sq km

land: 28,400 sq km

water: 1,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Maryland
Tlo historyczne Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During Swiat War I w the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turcja instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled z other harsh practices that resulted w an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Rosja w 1828; this portion declared its independence w 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army w 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict z Muslim Azerbejdzan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbejdzan w the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbejdzan began fighting over the area w 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union w 1991. By maj 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbejdzan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turcja imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian separatists' control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 12.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.648 billion

expenditures: $1.645 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Yerevan

geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja adopted by nationwide referendum 5 lipiec 1995; amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum 27 listopad 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Armenia

conventional short form: Armenia

local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

local short form: Hayastan

former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.29 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.372 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph S. PENNINGTON

embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082

mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020

telephone: [374](10) 464-700

FAX: [374](10) 464-742
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN

chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists w Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbejdzan - Organization dla Security and Cooperation w Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbejdzanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes w Azerbejdzan into Armenia; Azerbejdzan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border z Turcja remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrate, primarily to Rosja, seeking employment
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $180 million (2007)
Ekonomia Since the breakup of the Soviet Union w 1991, Armenia has made progress w implementing many economic reforms including privatization, price reforms, and prudent fiscal policies. The conflict z Azerbejdzan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh contributed to a severe economic decline w the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted w positive growth rates. Economic growth has averaged over 13% w recent years. Armenia has managed to reduce poverty, slash inflation, stabilize its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, w exchange dla raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. Nuclear power plants built at Metsamor w the 1970s were closed following the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, though they sustained no damage. One of the two reactors was re-opened w 1995, but the Armenian government is under international pressure to close it due to concerns that the Soviet era design lacks important safeguards. Metsamor provides 40 percent of the country's electricity - hydropower accounts dla about one-fourth. Economic ties z Rosja remain close, especially w the energy sector. The electricity distribution system was privatized w 2002 and bought by Rosja's RAO-UES w 2005. Construction of a pipeline to deliver natural gas from Iran to Armenia is halfway completed and is scheduled to be commissioned by styczen 2009. Armenia has some mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite). Pig iron, unwrought copper, and other nonferrous metals are Armenia's highest valued exports. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Armenia joined the WTO w styczen 2003. The government made some improvements w tax and customs administration w recent years, but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement. Despite strong economic growth, Armenia's unemployment rate remains high. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms w order to improve its economic competitiveness and to build on recent improvements w poverty and unemployment, especially given its economic isolation from two of its nearest neighbors, Turcja and Azerbejdzan.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 5.454 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 754.5 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region w Azerbejdzan (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 354.9 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 5.941 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Debed River 400 m

highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged dla firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source dla hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant w spite of its location w a seismically active zone
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Grupy etniczne Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Rosjan 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty drams per US dollar - 344.06 (2007), 414.69 (2006), 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 marzec 1998)

head of government: Prime Minister Serzh SARGSYAN (since 4 kwiecien 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 19 luty 2008 (next to be held luty 2013); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority or plurality support w parliament; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program

election results: Serzh SARGSYAN elected president; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSYAN 52.9%, Levon TER-PETROSSIAN 21.5%, Artur BAGHDASARIAN 16.7%; note - president elect Serzh SARGSYAN is due to take office 9 kwiecien 2008
Eksport 754.5 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region w Azerbejdzan (2006)
Eksport $1.157 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 18.3%, Holandia 14.1%, Belgia 13.3%, Rosja 13.1%, Izrael 7%, US 6.1%, Georgia 5.1%, Iran 4.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 17.2%

industry: 36.4%

services: 46.4% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 13.7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked w the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake w this mountain range
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 41.3% (2004)
Narkotyki illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis dla domestic consumption; minor transit point dla illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Rosja and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Import 354.9 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2006)
Import $3.281 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 2.2 billion cu m (2007)
Import 41,240 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Import - partnerzy Rosja 21.8%, Ukraina 7.8%, Belgia 7.6%, Turkmenistan 7.1%, Wlochy 6.1%, Niemcy 5.7%, Iran 5.7%, Izrael 4.8%, US 4.5%, Georgia 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 21 wrzesien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 21.69 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.69 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT (observer), ADB, BSEC, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 2,860 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Sila robocza 1.2 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 46.2%

industry: 15.6%

services: 38.2% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 1,254 km

border countries: Azerbejdzan-proper 566 km, Azerbejdzan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turcja 268 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.78%

permanent crops: 2.01%

other: 81.21% (2005)
Jezyki Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Rosjan 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote, 90 members elected by party list and 41 by direct vote; to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 12 maj 2007 (next to be held w the spring of 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - HHK 49.6%, Prosperous Armenia 19%, ARF (Dashnak) 12.2%, Rule of Law 6.1%, Heritage Party 5.3%, other 7.8%; seats by party - HHK 65, Prosperous Armenia 25, ARF (Dashnak) 16, Rule of Law 8, Heritage Party 7, Dashink 1, independent 9
Zywotnosc total population: 72.12 years

male: 68.52 years

female: 76.29 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.4%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.2% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southwestern Asia, east of Turcja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force (NKSDF), Air Force, Air Defense Force (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 6.5% (FY01)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 21 wrzesien (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian
Naturalne zagrozenia occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Surowce naturalne small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
Wspolczynnik migracji -5.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,036 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABYAN]; Armenian People's Party [Tigran KARAPETYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Azadagan Party Alliance or HRAK (includes former Dashink Party, National Revival Party, and Ramkavar Liberal Party); Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSAROUKYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or HHK [Serzh SARGSYAN]; Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARYAN]; Union of Konstytucjaal Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN], Aylentrank (Impeachment) [Nikol PASHINYAN]
Ludnosc 2,971,650 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 26.5% (2006 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.129% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 839 km

broad gauge: 839 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)

note: some lines are out of service (2006)
Religie Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist z elements of nature worship) 1.3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.16 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.133 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.876 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.665 male(s)/female

total population: 0.894 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads w modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated w late 2004 and a second provider began operations w mid-2005

domestic: reliable modern landline and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan w major cities and towns; significant, but ever-shrinking gaps remain w mobile-cellular coverage w rural areas

international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 594,400 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 318,000 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Rosjan channels widely available) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu Armenian Highland z mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil w Aras River valley
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.34 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.1% (2007 est.)
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