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Armenia (2003)

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Armenia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Age structure 0-14 years: 21.1% (male 356,587; female 346,648)

15-64 years: 68.3% (male 1,113,241; female 1,158,245)

65 years and over: 10.6% (male 147,156; female 204,571) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Airports 15 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 29,800 sq km

land: 28,400 sq km

water: 1,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. It was incorporated into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
Birth rate 12.57 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $402 million

expenditures: $482 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Yerevan
Climate highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Armenia

conventional short form: Armenia

local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

local short form: Hayastan

former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic
Currency dram (AMD)
Death rate 10.16 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $905 million (June 2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John M. ORDWAY

embassy: 18 Baghramyan Ave., Yerevan 375019

mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020

telephone: [374](1) 521-611, 520-791, 542-177, 542-132, 524-661, 527-001, 524-840

FAX: [374](1) 520-800
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSSIAN

chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Disputes - international Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia
Economic aid - recipient ODA $170 million (2000)
Economy - overview Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2003. Armenia also has managed to slash inflation, stabilize the local currency (the dram), and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s have been offset by the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor, which is under international pressure to close. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, domestic restructuring of the economy, and foreign direct investment. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector.
Electricity - consumption 5.784 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)
Electricity - imports 463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)
Electricity - production 6.479 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 42.3%

hydro: 27%

nuclear: 30.7%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Debed River 400 m

highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Environment - current issues soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Ethnic groups Armenian 93%, Azeri 1%, Russian 2%, other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 4% (2002)

note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia
Exchange rates drams per US dollar - NA (2002), 555.08 (2001), 539.53 (2000), 535.06 (1999), 504.92 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)

head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2008); prime minister appointed by the president; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program

election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%
Exports 704 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2001)
Exports $525 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Exports - partners Belgium 21.5%, Russia 14.6%, Israel 10.3%, Iran 9.4%, US 8.2%, Switzerland 6.8%, Germany 6.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.13 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30%

industry: 26%

services: 44% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 12.9% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Geography - note landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Highways total: 15,918 km

paved: 15,329 km (includes 7,527 km of expressways)

unpaved: 589 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 46.2% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; used as a transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
Imports 463 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2001)
Imports $991 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports 1.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Imports - partners US 15.3%, Russia 12.9%, Belgium 12.3%, Iran 10.3%, UAE 6.3%, Germany 5.5%, Italy 4.9% (2002)
Independence 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 15% (2002 est.)
Industries metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, gem cutting, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Infant mortality rate total: 40.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 36.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.1% (2002 est.)
International organization participation BSEC, CE, CIS, COE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2001)
Irrigated land 2,870 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Labor force 1.4 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%, services 30%, industry 25% (2002 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,254 km

border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Land use arable land: 17.52%

permanent crops: 2.3%

other: 80.18% (1998 est.)
Languages Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; 75 members selected by direct vote, 56 by party list)

elections: last held 25 May 2003 (next to be held in the spring of 2007)

note: electoral law was changed in 2002 so ratio in next elections will be 75 deputies elected by party list, 56 by direct election

election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.5%, Justice Bloc 13.6%, Rule of Law 12.3%, ARF (Dashnak) 11.4%, National Unity Party 8.8%, United Labor Party 5.7%; seats by party - Republican Party 23, Justice Bloc 14, Rule of Law 12, ARF (Dashnak) 11, National Unity 9, United Labor 6; note - seats by party change frequently as deputies switch parties or announce themselves independent
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.68 years

male: 62.41 years

female: 71.17 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 99.4%

female: 98% (2003 est.)
Location Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards
Military expenditures - dollar figure $135 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.5% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 919,582 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 727,770 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 37,209 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Nationality noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian
Natural hazards occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Natural resources small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Net migration rate -3.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,031 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALIAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Ruben MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Vahan HOVHANISSIAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, and the People's Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGAMIAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Albert BAZEYAN and Aram SARKISYAN, chairmen]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARKARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGDASARIAN, chairman]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Population 3,326,448

note: Armenia's first census since independence was conducted in October 2001; official results are not expected until late 2003 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate -0.07% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 852 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines

broad gauge: 852 km 1.520-m gauge (779 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Armenian Apostolic 94%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (Zoroastrian/animist) 2%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion

domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)

international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (2000)
Telephones - main lines in use 600,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 50,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus an unknown number of repeaters); (1998)
Terrain Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Total fertility rate 1.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 20% (2001 est.)
Waterways NA km
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