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Terrain (2003)

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Informations about Terrain in 2003 year

AfghanistanAfghanistan mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
AlbaniaAlbania mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
AlgeriaAlgeria mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
American SamoaAmerican Samoa five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
AndorraAndorra rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
AngolaAngola narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
AnguillaAnguilla flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
AntarcticaAntarctica about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and Barbuda mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Arctic OceanArctic Ocean central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)
ArgentinaArgentina rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
ArmeniaArmenia Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
ArubaAruba flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Ashmore and Cartier IslandsAshmore and Cartier Islands low with sand and coral
Atlantic OceanAtlantic Ocean surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin
AustraliaAustralia mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
AustriaAustria in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Bahamas, TheBahamas, The long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
BahrainBahrain mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Baker IslandBaker Island low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
BangladeshBangladesh mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
BarbadosBarbados relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Bassas da IndiaBassas da India volcanic rock
BelarusBelarus generally flat and contains much marshland
BelgiumBelgium flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
BelizeBelize flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
BeninBenin mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
BermudaBermuda low hills separated by fertile depressions
BhutanBhutan mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
BoliviaBolivia rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina mountains and valleys
BotswanaBotswana predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Bouvet IslandBouvet Island volcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible
BrazilBrazil mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean Territory flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in elevation)
British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
BruneiBrunei flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
BulgariaBulgaria mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
BurmaBurma central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
BurundiBurundi hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
CambodiaCambodia mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
CameroonCameroon diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
CanadaCanada mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Cape VerdeCape Verde steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Cayman IslandsCayman Islands low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Central African RepublicCentral African Republic vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest
ChadChad broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
ChileChile low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
ChinaChina mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Christmas IslandChristmas Island steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Clipperton IslandClipperton Island coral atoll
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsCocos (Keeling) Islands flat, low-lying coral atolls
ColombiaColombia flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
ComorosComoros volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Congo, Democratic Republic of theCongo, Democratic Republic of the vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Congo, Republic of theCongo, Republic of the coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Cook IslandsCook Islands low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Coral Sea IslandsCoral Sea Islands sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Costa RicaCosta Rica coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
CroatiaCroatia geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
CubaCuba mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
CyprusCyprus central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
DenmarkDenmark low and flat to gently rolling plains
DjiboutiDjibouti coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
DominicaDominica rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Dominican RepublicDominican Republic rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
East TimorEast Timor mountainous
EcuadorEcuador coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
EgyptEgypt vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
El SalvadorEl Salvador mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
EritreaEritrea dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
EstoniaEstonia marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
EthiopiaEthiopia high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Europa IslandEuropa Island low and flat
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
FijiFiji mostly mountains of volcanic origin
FinlandFinland mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
FranceFrance mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
French GuianaFrench Guiana low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench Southern and Antarctic Lands volcanic
GabonGabon narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Gambia, TheGambia, The flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Gaza StripGaza Strip flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
GeorgiaGeorgia largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
GermanyGermany lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
GhanaGhana mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
GibraltarGibraltar a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Glorioso IslandsGlorioso Islands low and flat
GreeceGreece mostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
GreenlandGreenland flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
GrenadaGrenada volcanic in origin with central mountains
GuadeloupeGuadeloupe Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin
GuamGuam volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low hills in center, mountains in south
GuatemalaGuatemala mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau (Peten)
GuernseyGuernsey mostly level with low hills in southwest
GuineaGuinea generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
GuyanaGuyana mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
HaitiHaiti mostly rough and mountainous
Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island - 80% ice-covered, bleak and mountainous, dominated by a large massif (Big Ben) and an active volcano (Mawson Peak); McDonald Islands - small and rocky
Holy See (Vatican City)Holy See (Vatican City) low hill
HondurasHonduras mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Hong KongHong Kong hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Howland IslandHowland Island low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area
HungaryHungary mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
IcelandIceland mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords
IndiaIndia upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Indian OceanIndian Ocean surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge
IndonesiaIndonesia mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
IranIran rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
IraqIraq mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
IrelandIreland mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Isle of ManIsle of Man hills in north and south bisected by central valley
IsraelIsrael Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
ItalyItaly mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
JamaicaJamaica mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Jan MayenJan Mayen volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers
JapanJapan mostly rugged and mountainous
Jarvis IslandJarvis Island sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef
JerseyJersey gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Johnston AtollJohnston Atoll mostly flat
JordanJordan mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Juan de Nova IslandJuan de Nova Island low and flat
KazakhstanKazakhstan extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
KenyaKenya low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Kingman ReefKingman Reef low and nearly level
KiribatiKiribati mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Korea, NorthKorea, North mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east
Korea, SouthKorea, South mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
KuwaitKuwait flat to slightly undulating desert plain
KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
LaosLaos mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
LatviaLatvia low plain
LebanonLebanon narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
LesothoLesotho mostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains
LiberiaLiberia mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low mountains in northeast
LibyaLibya mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
LithuaniaLithuania lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
LuxembourgLuxembourg mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
MacauMacau generally flat
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
MadagascarMadagascar narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
MalawiMalawi narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
MalaysiaMalaysia coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
MaldivesMaldives flat, with white sandy beaches
MaliMali mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
MaltaMalta mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands low coral limestone and sand islands
MartiniqueMartinique mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
MauritaniaMauritania mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
MauritiusMauritius small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau
MayotteMayotte generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks
MexicoMexico high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Micronesia, Federated States ofMicronesia, Federated States of islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk
Midway IslandsMidway Islands low, nearly level
MoldovaMoldova rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
MonacoMonaco hilly, rugged, rocky
MongoliaMongolia vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
MontserratMontserrat volcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
MoroccoMorocco northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
MozambiqueMozambique mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
NamibiaNamibia mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
NauruNauru sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center
Navassa IslandNavassa Island raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)
NepalNepal Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north
NetherlandsNetherlands mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Netherlands AntillesNetherlands Antilles generally hilly, volcanic interiors
New CaledoniaNew Caledonia coastal plains with interior mountains
New ZealandNew Zealand predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
NicaraguaNicaragua extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
NigerNiger predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
NigeriaNigeria southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
NiueNiue steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Norfolk IslandNorfolk Island volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana Islands southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic
NorwayNorway glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
OmanOman central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Pacific OceanPacific Ocean surface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Mariana Trench, which is the world's deepest
PakistanPakistan flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
PalauPalau varying geologically from the high, mountainous main island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier reefs
Palmyra AtollPalmyra Atoll very low
PanamaPanama interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Paracel IslandsParacel Islands mostly low and flat
ParaguayParaguay grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
PeruPeru western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
PhilippinesPhilippines mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Pitcairn IslandsPitcairn Islands rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
PolandPoland mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
PortugalPortugal mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Puerto RicoPuerto Rico mostly mountains, with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
QatarQatar mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
ReunionReunion mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
RomaniaRomania central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
RussiaRussia broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
RwandaRwanda mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Saint HelenaSaint Helena Saint Helena - rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

note: the other islands of the group have a volcanic origin
Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and Nevis volcanic with mountainous interiors
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys
Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Pierre and Miquelon mostly barren rock
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines volcanic, mountainous
SamoaSamoa narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
San MarinoSan Marino rugged mountains
Sao Tome and PrincipeSao Tome and Principe volcanic, mountainous
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia mostly uninhabited, sandy desert
SenegalSenegal generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Serbia and MontenegroSerbia and Montenegro extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
SeychellesSeychelles Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east
SingaporeSingapore lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
SlovakiaSlovakia rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
SloveniaSlovenia a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls
SomaliaSomalia mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
South AfricaSouth Africa vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes
Southern OceanSouthern Ocean the Southern Ocean is deep, 4,000 to 5,000 meters over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep, its edge lying at depths of 400 to 800 meters (the global mean is 133 meters); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 million square kilometers in March to about 18.8 million square kilometers in September, better than a sixfold increase in area; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21,000 km in length) moves perpetually eastward; it is the world's largest ocean current, transporting 130 million cubic meters of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers
SpainSpain large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north
Spratly IslandsSpratly Islands flat
Sri LankaSri Lanka mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
SudanSudan generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
SurinameSuriname mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
SvalbardSvalbard wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
SwazilandSwaziland mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
SwedenSweden mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
SwitzerlandSwitzerland mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
SyriaSyria primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west
TaiwanTaiwan eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west
TajikistanTajikistan Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
TanzaniaTanzania plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
ThailandThailand central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
TogoTogo gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
TokelauTokelau low-lying coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
TongaTonga most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Tromelin IslandTromelin Island low, flat, and sandy; likely volcanic
TunisiaTunisia mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
TurkeyTurkey high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
TuvaluTuvalu very low-lying and narrow coral atolls
UgandaUganda mostly plateau with rim of mountains
UkraineUkraine most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east
United KingdomUnited Kingdom mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast
United StatesUnited States vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
UruguayUruguay mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
UzbekistanUzbekistan mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
VanuatuVanuatu mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
VenezuelaVenezuela Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
VietnamVietnam low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Virgin IslandsVirgin Islands mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Wake IslandWake Island atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim
Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna volcanic origin; low hills
West BankWest Bank mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east
Western SaharaWestern Sahara mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast
WorldWorld the greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean
YemenYemen narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
ZambiaZambia mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
ZimbabweZimbabwe mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
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