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Mali (2008)

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Mali 2008 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Age structure 0-14 years: 48.2% (male 2,921,914/female 2,853,976)

15-64 years: 48.8% (male 2,891,494/female 2,959,142)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 149,301/female 219,575) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 29 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Area total: 1.24 million sq km

land: 1.22 million sq km

water: 20,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup - led by the current president Amadou TOURE - enabling Mali's emergence as one of the strongest democracies on the continent. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was subsequently elected to a second term in 2007. The elections were widely judged to be free and fair.
Birth rate 49.61 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $764 million

expenditures: $828 million (2002 est.)
Capital name: Bamako

geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 12 January 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Mali

conventional short form: Mali

local long form: Republique de Mali

local short form: Mali

former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Death rate 16.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $2.8 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Terrence P. MCCULLEY

embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district

mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako

telephone: [223] 270-2300

FAX: [223] 270-2479
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP

chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $691.5 million (2005)
Economy - overview Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2007. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.
Electricity - consumption 412.9 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 444 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Senegal River 23 m

highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 September 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 29 April 2007 (next to be held April in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Exports 0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2005)
Exports $294 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners China 26.8%, Germany 24.9%, Thailand 7.1%, Taiwan 4.9%, Bangladesh 4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 45%

industry: 17%

services: 38% (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.3% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 30.2% (2001)
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $2.358 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 4,369 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners France 12.8%, Senegal 12.2%, Cote d'Ivoire 10.5% (2006)
Independence 22 September 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Infant mortality rate total: 105.65 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 115.29 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 95.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.5% (2002 est.)
Irrigated land 2,360 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 80%

industry and services: 20% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 7,243 km

border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Land use arable land: 3.76%

permanent crops: 0.03%

other: 96.21% (2005)
Languages French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (including ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (including RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Life expectancy at birth total population: 49.51 years

male: 47.6 years

female: 51.46 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 46.4%

male: 53.5%

female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Malian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Nationality noun: Malian(s)

adjective: Malian
Natural hazards hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Natural resources gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower

note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Net migration rate -6.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Population 11,995,402 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 64% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.681% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 230 (27 regional and government stations, and 203 private stations), shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 729 km

narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religions Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.024 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.977 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.988 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service

domestic: fixed-line availability is gradually increasing, but subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to 13 per 100 persons

international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 82,500 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.513 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 2 (plus repeaters) (2007)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Total fertility rate 7.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 14.6% (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,800 km (2007)
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