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Mali (2005)

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Mali 2005 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.1% (male 2,910,944/female 2,876,010)

15-64 years: 50% (male 2,955,496/female 3,185,666)

65 years and over: 3% (male 165,867/female 197,546) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 28 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 19

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1.24 million sq km

land: 1.22 million sq km

water: 20,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. After his reelection in 1997, President Alpha KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE.
Birth rate 46.77 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $764 million

expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2002 est.)
Capital Bamako
Climate subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 12 January 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Mali

conventional short form: Mali

local long form: Republique de Mali

local short form: Mali

former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Death rate 19.05 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $3.3 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki HUDDLESTONE

embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako

mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako

telephone: [223] (2) 223-833

FAX: [223] (2) 223-712
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP

chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $596.4 million (2001)
Economy - overview Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2004. Worker remittances and external trade routes have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.
Electricity - consumption 651 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 700 million kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Senegal River 23 m

highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Ousmane Issoufi MAIGA (since 30 April 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
Exports 0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2002)
Exports $915 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners China 31.6%, Pakistan 10%, Italy 6.9%, Thailand 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, India 4.8%, Bangladesh 4.5%, Taiwan 4% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 45%

industry: 17%

services: 38% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $900 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Geography - note landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Highways total: 15,100 km

paved: 1,827 km

unpaved: 13,273 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.8%

highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $927 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners France 14.5%, Senegal 9.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 7.6% (2004)
Independence 22 September 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA (FY96/97)
Industries food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Infant mortality rate total: 116.79 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 123.32 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 110.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.5% (2002 est.)
Irrigated land 1,380 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 7,243 km

border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Land use arable land: 3.82%

permanent crops: 0.03%

other: 96.15% (2001)
Languages French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14 July and 28 July 2002 (next to be held July 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Hope 2002 coalition 66, ADEMA 51, other 30
Life expectancy at birth total population: 48.64 years

male: 46.68 years

female: 50.66 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 46.4%

male: 53.5%

female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $22.4 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.4% (2004)
National holiday Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Nationality noun: Malian(s)

adjective: Malian
Natural hazards hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Natural resources gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower

note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Net migration rate -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Hope 2002 [leader NA]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
Population 12,291,529 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 64% average; 30% of the total population living in urban areas; 70% of the total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.74% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Koulikoro
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1

note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)
Railways total: 729 km

narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Religions Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service

domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress

international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 56,600 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 250,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Total fertility rate 6.5 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,815 km (2004)
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