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Mali (2001)

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Mali 2001 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Age structure 0-14 years:
47.2% (male 2,612,215; female 2,583,370)

15-64 years:
49.73% (male 2,610,142; female 2,864,127)

65 years and over:
3.07% (male 158,486; female 180,178) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 27 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
9 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1.24 million sq km

1.22 million sq km

20,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE has continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term.
Birth rate 48.79 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$730 million

$770 million, including capital expenditures of $320 million (1997 est.)
Capital Bamako
Climate subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 12 January 1992
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Mali

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republique de Mali

local short form:

French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Death rate 18.71 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $3 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER

Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako

mailing address:
B. P. 34, Bamako

[223] 22 54 70

[223] 22 37 12
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH

2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950

[1] (202) 332-6603
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $596.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. Growth should remain around 5% in 2001-02, and inflation should stay less than 2%.
Electricity - consumption 413.9 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 445 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Senegal River 23 m

highest point:
Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992)

head of government:
Prime Minister Mande SIDIBE (since September 2000)

Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA May 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Alpha Oumar KONARE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha Oumar KONARE 95.9%, Mamadou DIABY 4.1%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $480 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities cotton 50%, gold, livestock (1999 est.)
Exports - partners Italy 18%, Thailand 15%, Germany 7%, Portugal 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $9.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


33% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $850 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
15,100 km

1,827 km

13,273 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
40.4% (1994)
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $575 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners Cote d'Ivoire 19%, France 19%, Senegal 4%, Benelux 3% (1999)
Independence 22 September 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Infant mortality rate 121.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 780 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and fishing 80% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total:
7,243 km

border countries:
Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

67% (1993 est.)
Languages French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held in two rounds in 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 130, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2
Life expectancy at birth total population:
47.02 years

45.84 years

48.24 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


23.1% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $49 million (FY96)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (FY96)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,284,632 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,309,612 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts
Natural resources gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower

bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Net migration rate -0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]
Political pressure groups and leaders Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
Population 11,008,518 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.97% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Koulikoro
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 14, shortwave 7 (1998)
Radios 570,000 (1997)
Railways total:
729 km (linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes)

narrow gauge:
729 km 1.000-m gauge
Religions Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.88 male(s)/female

total population:
0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service

network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 23,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,842 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Total fertility rate 6.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 1,815 km
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