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Bhutan (2008)

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Bhutan 2008 roku

 Bhutan
Podzial administracyjny 20 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Gasa, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Tashi Yangtse, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 38.6% (male 465,340/female 433,184)


15-64 years: 57.4% (male 688,428/female 647,134)


65 years and over: 4% (male 47,123/female 46,640) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
Lotniska 2 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Terytorium total: 47,000 sq km


land: 47,000 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci about half the size of Indiena
Tlo historyczne In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy w exchange dla ceding some border land to British Indie. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up w 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere w Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent Indie after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined Indie's responsibilities w defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese w Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed w seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner dla Refugees (UNHCR) camps. In marzec 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the government's draft constitution - which would introduce major democratic reforms - and pledged to hold a national referendum dla its approval. In grudzien 2006, the King abdicated the throne to his son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK, w order to give him experience as head of state before the democratic transition. In early 2007, Indie and Bhutan renegotiated their treaty to allow Bhutan greater autonomy w conducting its foreign policy, although Thimphu continues to coordinate policy decisions w this area z New Delhi. In lipiec 2007, seven ministers of Bhutan's ten-member cabinet resigned to join the political process, leaving the remaining cabinet to act as a caretaker regime until a new government assumes power following parliamentary elections. Bhutan will complete its transition to full democracy w 2008, when its first fully democratic elections to a new parliament - expected to be completed by marzec 2008 - and a concomitant referendum on the draft constitution will take place.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 33.28 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $272 million


expenditures: $350 million


note: the government of Indie finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures (2005)
Stolica name: Thimphu


geographic coordinates: 27 29 N, 89 36 E


time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies; tropical w southern plains; cool winters and hot summers w central valleys; severe winters and cool summers w Himalayas
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja none; note - a draft constitution was unveiled w marzec 2005 and is expected to be adopted following the election of a new National Assembly w 2008
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan


conventional short form: Bhutan


local long form: Druk Gyalkhap


local short form: Druk Yul
Wspolczynnik zgonow 12.46 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $593 million (2004)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy w New Delhi (Indie)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA none; note - the Permanent Mission to the UN dla Bhutan has consular jurisdiction w the US; address: 763 First Avenue, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 682-2268; FAX [1] (212) 661-0551


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje over 100,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined w seven UN Office of the High Commissioner dla Refugees camps since 1990; Bhutan cooperates z Indie to expel Indien Nagaland separatists; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and Chiny continue negotiations to establish a boundary alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies w Bhutan's northwest
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $90.02 million; note - substantial aid from Indie (2005)
Ekonomia The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood dla more than 60% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned z Indie's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on Indie's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, z most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indien migrant labor. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway z support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, w its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and uncertain policies w areas such as industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment. Hydropower exports to Indie drove Produkt krajowy brutto growth to over 20% w 2007
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 380 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.5 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 20 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m


highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Kurs waluty ngultrum per US dollar - NA (2007), 45.279 (2006), 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003)


note: the ngultrum is pegged to the Indien rupee
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 grudzien 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 grudzien 2006 and his son immediately succeeded him


head of government: Prime Minister Kinzang DORJI (since sierpien 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms w lipiec 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch z two-thirds vote; election of a new National Assembly is expected w 2008
Eksport 1.5 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $350 million f.o.b. (2006)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary electricity (to Indie), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
Eksport - partnerzy Indie 54.5%, Hong Kong 34.6%, Bangladesz 6.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 24.7%


industry: 37.2%


services: 38.1% (2005)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.8% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 27 30 N, 90 30 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Indie; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 20 million kWh (2005)
Import $320 million c.i.f. (2006)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 1,138 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary fuel and lubricants, grain, aircraft, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
Import - partnerzy Indie 76%, Japonia 5.5%, Niemcy 3.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1907 (became a unified kingdom under its first hereditary king)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 9.3% (1996 est.)
Przemysl cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 96.37 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 94.09 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 98.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.5% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 400 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch); note - the draft constitution establishes a Supreme Court, which will serve as chief court of appeal
Sila robocza NA


note: major shortage of skilled labor
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 63%


industry: 6%


services: 31% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 1,075 km


border countries: Chiny 470 km, Indie 605 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.3%


permanent crops: 0.43%


other: 97.27% (2005)
Jezyki Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
System prawny based on Indien law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 members elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; to serve three-year terms); note - a new bicameral parliament will be established w 2008


elections: first elections to be held w grudzien 2007 and spring 2008; note - local elections last held sierpien 2005 (next to be held w 2008)


election results: NA
Zywotnosc total population: 55.17 years


male: 55.38 years


female: 54.96 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 47%


male: 60%


female: 34% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, between Chiny and Indie
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Royal Bhutan Army (includes Royal Bodyguard and Royal Bhutan Police) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 grudzien (1907)
Narodowosc noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Bhutanese
Naturalne zagrozenia violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Surowce naturalne timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Druk Pheunsum Tshogpa or DPT [Jigme THINLEY]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Sangay NGEDUP]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indien merchant community; United Front dla Democracy (exiled)
Ludnosc 2,327,849


note: the Factbook population estimate is inconsistent z the 2005 Bhutan census results; both data are being reviewed and when completed, the results will be posted on The Swiat Factbook Web site (https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook) later this year (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 31.7% (2003)
Przyrost naturalny 2.082% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 9, shortwave 1 (2007)
Religie Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indien- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.074 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.064 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female


total population: 1.066 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: urban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications services


domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor especially w rural areas; wireless service available since 2003


international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through Indie; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 31,500 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 82,100 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (2007)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountainous z some fertile valleys and savanna
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.67 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 2.5% (2004)
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