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Bhutan (2006)

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Bhutan 2006 year

Administrative divisions 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Dagana, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

note: there may be two new districts named Gasa and Yangtse
Age structure 0-14 years: 38.9% (male 458,801/female 426,947)

15-64 years: 57.1% (male 671,057/female 631,078)

65 years and over: 4% (male 46,217/female 45,623) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy products, eggs
Airports 2 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Area total: 47,000 sq km

land: 47,000 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative about half the size of Indiana
Background In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land to British India. Under British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later, a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years later, a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British, formalized the annual subsidies the country received, and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of some 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. In March 2005, King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the government's draft constitution - which would introduce major democratic reforms - and pledged to hold a national referendum for its approval. A referendum date has yet to be named.
Birth rate 33.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $346.6 million

expenditures: including capital expenditures of $NA

note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures (FY95/96 est.)
Capital name: Thimphu

geographic coordinates: 27 28 N, 89 39 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution no written constitution or bill of rights; note - in 2001, the king commissioned the drafting of a constitution, and in March 2005 publicly unveiled it; is awaiting national referendum
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan

conventional short form: Bhutan

local long form: Druk Gyalkhap

local short form: Druk Yul
Death rate 12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $593 million (2004)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US and Bhutan have no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)
Diplomatic representation in the US none; note - Bhutan has a Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; FAX [1] (212) 826-2998; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international approximately 105,000 Bhutanese have lived decades as refugees in Nepal, 90% of whom reside in seven UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees camps; Bhutan cooperates with India to expel Indian separatists
Economic aid - recipient $78 million substantial aid from India and other nations
Economy - overview The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 90% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organizations. Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Detailed controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.
Electricity - consumption 250.3 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 1.51 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 10 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 1.882 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m

highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35% (includes Lhotsampas - one of several Nepalese ethnic groups), indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Exchange rates ngultrum per US dollar - 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sangay NGEDUP (since 5 September 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote
Exports 1.51 billion kWh (2003)
Exports $154 million f.o.b. (2000 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities electricity (to India), cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones, spices
Exports - partners Japan 33.2%, Germany 13.6%, France 13.5%, South Korea 7.8%, US 7.7%, Thailand 5.8%, Italy 5.1% (2005)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 37.9%

services: 36.3% (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.9% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 27 30 N, 90 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 10 million kWh (2003)
Imports $196 million c.i.f. (2000 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice
Imports - partners Hong Kong 68.4%, Mexico 20.8%, France 3.9% (2005)
Independence 8 August 1949 (from India)
Industrial production growth rate 9.3% (1996 est.)
Industries cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide
Infant mortality rate total: 98.41 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 96.14 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 100.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7% (2005 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, BIMSTEC, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 400 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
Labor force NA

note: major shortage of skilled labor
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 93%

industry: 2%

services: 5%
Land boundaries total: 1,075 km

border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km
Land use arable land: 2.3%

permanent crops: 0.43%

other: 97.27% (2005)
Languages Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Legal system based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150 seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)

elections: local elections last held August 2005 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: NA
Life expectancy at birth total population: 54.78 years

male: 55.02 years

female: 54.53 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 47%

male: 60%

female: 34% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Asia, between China and India
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Royal Bhutan Army: Royal Bodyguard, Royal Bhutan Police (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $8.29 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (2005 est.)
National holiday National Day (Ugyen WANGCHUCK became first hereditary king), 17 December (1907)
Nationality noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Bhutanese
Natural hazards violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Natural resources timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Political parties and leaders no legal parties
Political pressure groups and leaders Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)
Population 2,279,723

note: other estimates range as low as 810,000 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.1% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 9, shortwave 1 (2006)
Religions Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage each family has one vote in village-level elections; note - in late 2003 Bhutan's legislature passed a new election law
Telephone system general assessment: telecommunications facilities are poor

domestic: very low teledensity; domestic service is very poor especially in rural areas; wireless service available since 2003

international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 (2005)
Telephones - main lines in use 32,700 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 37,800 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2006)
Terrain mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Total fertility rate 4.74 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
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