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Djibouti (2008)

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Djibouti 2008 year

Administrative divisions 6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
Age structure 0-14 years: 43.4% (male 107,957/female 107,233)

15-64 years: 53.2% (male 137,111/female 126,952)

65 years and over: 3.4% (male 8,626/female 8,495) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
Airports 13 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Area total: 23,000 sq km

land: 22,980 sq km

water: 20 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Background The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afars minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 following the conclusion of a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multi-party presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH; he was re-elected to a second and final term in 2005. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the mouth of the Red Sea and serves as an important transshipment location for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands. The present leadership favors close ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, but also has strong ties with the US. Djibouti hosts the only US military base in sub-Saharan Africa and is a front-line state in the global war on terrorism.
Birth rate 39.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $135 million

expenditures: $182 million (1999 est.)
Capital name: Djibouti

geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate desert; torrid, dry
Coastline 314 km
Constitution multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti

conventional short form: Djibouti

local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti

local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti

former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
Death rate 19.23 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $428 million (2006)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON

embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti

mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti

telephone: [253] 35 39 95

FAX: [253] 35 39 40
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE Oudine

chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270

FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Disputes - international Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; thousands of Somali refugees await repatriation in UNHCR camps in Djibouti
Economic aid - recipient $78.6 million (2005)
Economy - overview The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in the Horn of Africa. Two-thirds of Djibouti's inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Imports and exports from landlocked neighbor Ethiopia represent 85% of port activity at Djibouti's container terminal. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of nearly 60% continues to be a major problem. While inflation is not a concern, due to the fixed tie of the Djiboutian franc to the US dollar, the artificially high value of the Djiboutian franc adversely affects Djibouti's balance of payments. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% between 1999 and 2006 because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors.
Electricity - consumption 226.9 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2006)
Electricity - production 306 million kWh (2006)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m

highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
Exchange rates Djiboutian francs per US dollar - 177.71 (2007), 174.75 (2006), 177.72 (2005), 177.72 (2004), 177.72 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Dileita DILEITA (since 4 March 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2005 (next to be held by April 2011); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 100%
Exports 0 kWh (2006)
Exports $340 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 19.13 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
Exports - partners Somalia 66.2%, Ethiopia 21.4%, Yemen 3.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.2%

industry: 14.9%

services: 81.9% (2006)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2006)
Geographic coordinates 11 30 N, 43 00 E
Geography - note strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2006)
Imports $1.555 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 11,860 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 21.4%, India 17.9%, China 11%, Ethiopia 4.6% (2006)
Independence 27 June 1977 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (1996 est.)
Industries construction, agricultural processing
Infant mortality rate total: 100.77 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 108.35 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 92.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 10 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 282,000 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Land boundaries total: 516 km

border countries: Eritrea 109 km, Ethiopia 349 km, Somalia 58 km
Land use arable land: 0.04%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 99.96% (2005)
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Legal system based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 8 February 2008 (next to be held 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats - UMP (coalition of parties associated with President Ismail Omar GUELLAH) 65
Life expectancy at birth total population: 43.25 years

male: 41.88 years

female: 44.65 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 67.9%

male: 78%

female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT

by type: cargo 1 (2007)
Military branches Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.8% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Nationality noun: Djiboutian(s)

adjective: Djiboutian
Natural hazards earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
Natural resources geothermal areas, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party); Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD; Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD); Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ
Political pressure groups and leaders Union for Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union for Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, and UDJ)
Population 496,374 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 42% (2007 est.)
Population growth rate 1.984% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)
Railways total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)

narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia but remains largely inoperable (2006)
Religions Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.007 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.015 male(s)/female

total population: 1.045 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country

domestic: microwave radio relay network; mobile cellular coverage is limited to the area in and around Djibouti city

international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network
Telephones - main lines in use 10,800 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 44,100 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Terrain coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Total fertility rate 5.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 59% in urban areas, 83% in rural areas (2007 est.)
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