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Djibouti (2003)

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Djibouti 2003 year

Administrative divisions 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura
Age structure 0-14 years: 43.1% (male 98,796; female 98,202)

15-64 years: 53.9% (male 129,492; female 116,953)

65 years and over: 3% (male 6,933; female 6,754) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels
Airports 13 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1524 to 2437 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Area total: 23,000 sq km

land: 22,980 sq km

water: 20 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Background The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve three consecutive six-year terms as president. Unrest among the Afars minority during the 1990's led to multi-party elections resulting in President Ismail Omar GUELLEH attaining office in May 1999. A peace accord in 2001 ended the final phases of a ten-year uprising by Afar rebels. Djibouti occupies a very strategic geographic location at the mouth of the Red Sea and serves as an important transshipment location for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands. GUELLEH favors close ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country.
Birth rate 40.78 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $135 million

expenditures: $182 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Djibouti
Climate desert; torrid, dry
Coastline 314 km
Constitution multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti

conventional short form: Djibouti

former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
Currency Djiboutian franc (DJF)
Death rate 19.45 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $366 million (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Donald YAMAMOTO

embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti

mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti

telephone: [253] 35 39 95

FAX: [253] 35 39 40
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye

chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270

FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Disputes - international Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia including the Somali Transitional National Government in Mogadishu
Economic aid - recipient $36 million (2001)
Economy - overview The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 50% continues to be a major problem. Inflation is not a concern, however, because of the fixed tie of the franc to the US dollar. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors. Another factor limiting growth is the negative impact on port activity now that Ethiopia has more trade route options.
Electricity - consumption 167.4 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 180 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m

highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Exchange rates Djiboutian francs per US dollar - 177.72 (2002), 177.72 (2001), 177.72 (2000), 177.72 (1999), 177.72 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister DILEITA Mohamed Dileita (since 4 March 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 9 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH elected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 74.4%, IDRIS Moussa Ahmed 25.6%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $70 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
Exports - partners Somalia 56.7%, Yemen 24.4%, Pakistan 4.8%, Ethiopia 4.4%, UAE 4.1% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $619 million (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 15.8%

services: 80.7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 11 30 N, 43 00 E
Geography - note strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa
Highways total: 2,890 km

paved: 364 km

unpaved: 2,526 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $255 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 18.2%, Ethiopia 10.5%, US 9.2%, France 8.6%, China 8.2%, Netherlands 4.1% (2002)
Independence 27 June 1977 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (1996 est.)
Industries construction, agricultural processing
Infant mortality rate total: 106.96 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 114.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 98.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 282,000
Labor force - by occupation NA%
Land boundaries total: 516 km

border countries: Eritrea 109 km, Ethiopia 349 km, Somalia 58 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (1998 est.)
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Legal system based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law
Legislative branch unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 10 January 2003 (next to be held NA January 2008)

election results: percent of vote - RPP 62.2%, FRUD 36.9%; seats - RPP 65, FRUD 0; note - RPP (the ruling party) dominated the election
Life expectancy at birth total population: 43.13 years

male: 41.82 years

female: 44.48 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 67.9%

male: 78%

female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Military branches Djibouti National Army (including Navy and Air Force)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $26.53 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.4% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 107,050 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 63,459 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Nationality noun: Djiboutian(s)

adjective: Djiboutian
Natural hazards earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
Natural resources geothermal areas
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP (governing party) [Ismail Omar GUELLEH]; Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed Dini AHMED]; Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Union for Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union for Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, UDJ, and PDD) [Ahmed Dini AHMED]
Population 457,130 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.13% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Djibouti
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)
Railways total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)

narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2002)
Religions Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country

domestic: microwave radio relay network

international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network
Telephones - main lines in use 10,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Terrain coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Total fertility rate 5.56 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 50% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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