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Sudan (2008)

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Sudan 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa'iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 41.6% (male 8,371,628/female 8,016,880)

15-64 years: 56% (male 11,080,025/female 10,956,458)

65 years and over: 2.4% (male 504,957/female 449,410) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Lotniska 101 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 16

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 85

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 20

914 to 1,523 m: 37

under 914 m: 27 (2007)
Terytorium total: 2,505,810 sq km

land: 2.376 million sq km

water: 129,810 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK w 1956. Sudan was embroiled w two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted w northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended w 1972 but broke out again w 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted w more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum w 2002-04 z the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed w styczen 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy dla six years. After which, a referendum dla independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict, which broke out w the western region of Darfur w 2003, has displaced nearly 2 million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union on 31 grudzien 2007. As of early 2008, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional w scope, and has brought instability to eastern Czad, and Sudanese incursions into the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Etiopia and Czad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 34.86 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $9.682 billion

expenditures: $11.59 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Khartoum

geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical w south; arid desert w north; rainy season varies by region (kwiecien to listopad)
Linia brzegowa 853 km
Konstytucja constitution implemented on 30 czerwiec 1998, partially suspended 12 grudzien 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Konstytucja ratified 5 lipiec 2005; Konstytucja of Southern Sudan signed grudzien 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan

conventional short form: Sudan

local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

local short form: As-Sudan

former: Anglo-Egiptian Sudan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 14.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $29.6 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alberto M. Fernandez

embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum

mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829

telephone: [249] (183) 774701/2/3

FAX: [249] (183) 774137

note: US Consul w Cairo is providing backup service dla Khartoum;
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John UKEC Lueth

chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; as of 2006, Czad, Etiopia, Kenia, Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter dla over half a million Sudanese refugees, which includes 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military forces; Sudan, w turn, hosted about 116,000 Erytreans, 20,000 Czadians, and smaller numbers of Etiopians, Ugandans, Central Africans, and Congolese as refugees; w luty 2006, Sudan and DROC signed an agreement to repatriate 13,300 Sudanese and 6,800 Congolese; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting w eastern Sudan; the boundary that separates Kenia and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear w the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenia has administered since colonial times; while Sudan claims to administer the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel; both states withdrew their military presence w the 1990s, and Egipt has invested w and effectively administers the area; periodic violent skirmishes z Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border z the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.829 billion (2005)
Ekonomia Sudan's economy is booming on the back of increases w oil production, high oil prices, and large inflows of foreign direct investment. Produkt krajowy brutto growth registered more than 10% per year w 2006 and 2007. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been working z the IMF to implement macroeconomic reforms, including a managed float of the exchange rate. Sudan began exporting crude oil w the last quarter of 1999. Agricultural production remains important, because it employs 80% of the work force and contributes a third of Produkt krajowy brutto. The Darfur conflict, the aftermath of two decades of civil war w the south, the lack of basic infrastructure w large areas, and a reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line dla years despite rapid rises w average per capita income. In styczen 2007, the government introduced a new currency, the Sudanese Pound, at an initial exchange rate of $1.00 equals 2 Sudanese Pounds.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.298 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.944 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Red Sea 0 m

highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 2.06 (2007), 217.2 (2006), 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet

elections: election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000; next to be held no later than lipiec 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement

election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair election

note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council dla National Salvation (RCC) w czerwiec 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-pazdziernik 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote dla the first time w marzec 1996
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $9.156 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Eksport 279,100 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Eksport - partnerzy Japonia 48%, Chiny 31%, South Korea 3.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 31.5%

industry: 35.7%

services: 32.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 12.8% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Ladowiska helikopterow 4 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $8.262 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Import 7,945 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Import - partnerzy Chiny 18.2%, Arabia Saudyjska 9.2%, UAE 5.8%, Egipt 5.3%, Niemcy 5.2%, Indie 4.6%, Francja 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1956 (from Egipt and UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 32% (2007 est.)
Przemysl oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 91.78 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 91.95 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 91.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.3% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 18,630 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Sila robocza 7.415 million (1996 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%

industry: 7%

services: 13% (1998 est.)
Granica total: 7,687 km

border countries: Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,165 km, Czad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egipt 1,273 km, Erytrea 605 km, Etiopia 1,606 km, Kenia 232 km, Libia 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.78%

permanent crops: 0.17%

other: 93.05% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English

note: program of "Arabization" w process
System prawny based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 styczen 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law w the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; however, the CPA establishes some protections dla non-Muslims w Khartoum; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Islamic law will not apply to the southern states
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; members presently appointed, but w the future 75% of members to be directly elected and 25% elected w special or indirect elections; to serve six-year terms)

elections: last held 13-22 grudzien 2000 (next to be held 2009)

election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Zywotnosc total population: 49.11 years

male: 48.24 years

female: 50.03 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.1%

male: 71.8%

female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egipt and Erytrea
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 18 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 3 ships (1000 GRT or over) 21,311 GRT/26,179 DWT

by type: cargo 2, livestock carrier 1 (2007)
Wojsko Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF): Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Forces (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1956)
Narodowosc noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sudanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva majardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; note - all political parties listed above w the Government of National Unity
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Ludnosc 39,379,358 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 40% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.082% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,978 km

narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge dla cotton plantations (2006)
Religie Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly w south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs 25%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.011 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.124 male(s)/female

total population: 1.027 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations

international: country code - 249; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Arabsat (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 636,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 4.683 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat, featureless plain; mountains w far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.69 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18.7% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2006)
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