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 Sudan (2008)Sudan (2005)
 SudanSudan
Podzial administracyjny 25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa'iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab) 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa'iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Gharb Kurdufan (Western Kordofan), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 41.6% (male 8,371,628/female 8,016,880)


15-64 years: 56% (male 11,080,025/female 10,956,458)


65 years and over: 2.4% (male 504,957/female 449,410) (2007 est.)
0-14 years: 43.2% (male 8,865,331/female 8,488,982)


15-64 years: 54.5% (male 10,952,566/female 10,930,218)


65 years and over: 2.4% (male 513,679/female 436,710) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Lotniska 101 (2007) 75 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 16


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
total: 12


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 8


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 85


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 20


914 to 1,523 m: 37


under 914 m: 27 (2007)
total: 63


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 17


914 to 1,523 m: 33


under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 2,505,810 sq km


land: 2.376 million sq km


water: 129,810 sq km
total: 2,505,810 sq km


land: 2.376 million sq km


water: 129,810 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK w 1956. Sudan was embroiled w two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted w northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended w 1972 but broke out again w 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted w more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum w 2002-04 z the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed w styczen 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy dla six years. After which, a referendum dla independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict, which broke out w the western region of Darfur w 2003, has displaced nearly 2 million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union on 31 grudzien 2007. As of early 2008, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional w scope, and has brought instability to eastern Czad, and Sudanese incursions into the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Etiopia and Czad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations. Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK w 1956. Sudan was embroiled w two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted w northern economic, political, and social domination of non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended w 1972, but broke out again w 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted w more than 2 million deaths and over 4 million people displaced over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum w 2002-04 z the signing of several accords; a final Naivasha peace treaty of styczen 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy dla six years, after which a referendum dla independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict that broke out w the western region of Darfur w 2003 resulted w tens of thousands of deaths and over 1 million displaced, but by early 2005, peackeeping troops had stabilized the situation.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 34.86 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 35.17 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $9.682 billion


expenditures: $11.59 billion (2007 est.)
revenues: $3.057 billion


expenditures: $2.965 billion, including capital expenditures of $304 million (2004 est.)
Stolica name: Khartoum


geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Khartoum
Klimat tropical w south; arid desert w north; rainy season varies by region (kwiecien to listopad) tropical w south; arid desert w north; rainy season varies by region (kwiecien to listopad)
Linia brzegowa 853 km 853 km
Konstytucja constitution implemented on 30 czerwiec 1998, partially suspended 12 grudzien 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Konstytucja ratified 5 lipiec 2005; Konstytucja of Southern Sudan signed grudzien 2005 12 kwiecien 1973; suspended following coup of 6 kwiecien 1985; interim constitution of 10 pazdziernik 1985 suspended following coup of 30 czerwiec 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 czerwiec 1998 partially suspended 12 grudzien 1999 by President BASHIR
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan


conventional short form: Sudan


local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan


local short form: As-Sudan


former: Anglo-Egiptian Sudan
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan


conventional short form: Sudan


local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan


local short form: As-Sudan


former: Anglo-Egiptian Sudan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 14.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 9.16 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $29.6 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.) $21 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alberto M. Fernandez


embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum


mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829


telephone: [249] (183) 774701/2/3


FAX: [249] (183) 774137


note: US Consul w Cairo is providing backup service dla Khartoum;
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Gerard M. GALLUCCI


embassy: Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum


mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829


telephone: [249] (11) 774611 or 774700


FAX: [249] (11) 774137


note: US Consul w Cairo is providing backup service dla Khartoum
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John UKEC Lueth


chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565


FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires, Ad Interim Khidir Haroun AHMED (since kwiecien 2001)


chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565


FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; as of 2006, Czad, Etiopia, Kenia, Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter dla over half a million Sudanese refugees, which includes 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military forces; Sudan, w turn, hosted about 116,000 Erytreans, 20,000 Czadians, and smaller numbers of Etiopians, Ugandans, Central Africans, and Congolese as refugees; w luty 2006, Sudan and DROC signed an agreement to repatriate 13,300 Sudanese and 6,800 Congolese; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting w eastern Sudan; the boundary that separates Kenia and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear w the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenia has administered since colonial times; while Sudan claims to administer the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel; both states withdrew their military presence w the 1990s, and Egipt has invested w and effectively administers the area; periodic violent skirmishes z Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border z the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-twentieth century have penetrated all of its border states who provide shelter dla fleeing refugees and cover to disparate domestic and foreign conflicting elements; since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Czad; large numbers of Sudanese refugees have also fled to Uganda, Etiopia, Kenia, the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; southern Sudan provides shelter to Ugandans seeking periodic protection from soldiers of the Lord's Resistance Army; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia have been delayed by civil and ethnic fighting w Sudan; Kenia's administrative boundary extends into the southern Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egipt and Sudan retain claims to administer triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egipt is economically developing the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; periodic violent skirmishes z Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations from the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie along the border
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.829 billion (2005) $172 million (2001)
Ekonomia Sudan's economy is booming on the back of increases w oil production, high oil prices, and large inflows of foreign direct investment. Produkt krajowy brutto growth registered more than 10% per year w 2006 and 2007. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been working z the IMF to implement macroeconomic reforms, including a managed float of the exchange rate. Sudan began exporting crude oil w the last quarter of 1999. Agricultural production remains important, because it employs 80% of the work force and contributes a third of Produkt krajowy brutto. The Darfur conflict, the aftermath of two decades of civil war w the south, the lack of basic infrastructure w large areas, and a reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line dla years despite rapid rises w average per capita income. In styczen 2007, the government introduced a new currency, the Sudanese Pound, at an initial exchange rate of $1.00 equals 2 Sudanese Pounds. Sudan has turned around a struggling economy z sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and w the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along z monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain Produkt krajowy brutto growth at 6.4% w 2004. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of Produkt krajowy brutto, and accounting dla most of Produkt krajowy brutto growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - including the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line dla years.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.298 billion kWh (2005) 2.4 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005) 0 kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005) 0 kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.944 billion kWh (2005) 2.581 billion kWh (2002)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Red Sea 0 m


highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m


highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1% black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 2.06 (2007), 217.2 (2006), 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003) Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003), 263.31 (2002), 258.7 (2001), 257.12 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet


elections: election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000; next to be held no later than lipiec 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement


election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair election


note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council dla National Salvation (RCC) w czerwiec 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-pazdziernik 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote dla the first time w marzec 1996
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Second Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Second Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA)


election results: Field Marshall Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair election


note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council dla National Salvation (RCC) w czerwiec 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-pazdziernik 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote dla the first time w marzec 1996
Eksport 279,100 bbl/day (2004) 275,000 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Eksport - partnerzy Japonia 48%, Chiny 31%, South Korea 3.8% (2006) Chiny 66.9%, Japonia 10.7%, Arabia Saudyjska 4.4% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 31.5%


industry: 35.7%


services: 32.8% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 38.7%


industry: 20.3%


services: 41% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita - purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 12.8% (2007 est.) 6.4% (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 30 00 E 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Ladowiska helikopterow 4 (2007) 2 (2004 est.)
Autostrady - total: 11,900 km


paved: 4,320 km


unpaved: 7,580 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: NA


highest 10%: NA
Import 7,945 bbl/day (2004) 0 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Import - partnerzy Chiny 18.2%, Arabia Saudyjska 9.2%, UAE 5.8%, Egipt 5.3%, Niemcy 5.2%, Indie 4.6%, Francja 4.1% (2006) Chiny 13%, Arabia Saudyjska 11.5%, UAE 5.9%, Egipt 5.1%, Indie 4.8%, Niemcy 4.5%, Australia 4.1%, Japonia 4% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1956 (from Egipt and UK) 1 styczen 1956 (from Egipt and UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 32% (2007 est.) 8.5% (1999 est.)
Przemysl oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 91.78 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 91.95 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 91.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
total: 62.5 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 63.29 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 61.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 5.3% (2007 est.) 9% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer) ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 18,630 sq km (2003) 19,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts
Sila robocza 7.415 million (1996 est.) 11 million (1996 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%


industry: 7%


services: 13% (1998 est.)
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)
Granica total: 7,687 km


border countries: Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,165 km, Czad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egipt 1,273 km, Erytrea 605 km, Etiopia 1,606 km, Kenia 232 km, Libia 383 km, Uganda 435 km
total: 7,687 km


border countries: Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,165 km, Czad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egipt 1,273 km, Erytrea 605 km, Etiopia 1,606 km, Kenia 232 km, Libia 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.78%


permanent crops: 0.17%


other: 93.05% (2005)
arable land: 6.83%


permanent crops: 0.18%


other: 92.99% (2001)
Jezyki Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English


note: program of "Arabization" w process
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English


note: program of "Arabization" w process
System prawny based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 styczen 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law w the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; however, the CPA establishes some protections dla non-Muslims w Khartoum; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Islamic law will not apply to the southern states based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 styczen 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law w the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; members presently appointed, but w the future 75% of members to be directly elected and 25% elected w special or indirect elections; to serve six-year terms)


elections: last held 13-22 grudzien 2000 (next to be held 2009)


election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
unicameral National Assembly (360 seats; 270 popularly elected, 90 elected by supra assembly of interest groups known as National Congress; members serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 13-22 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA)


election results: NCP 355, others 5
Zywotnosc total population: 49.11 years


male: 48.24 years


female: 50.03 years (2007 est.)
total population: 58.54 years


male: 57.33 years


female: 59.8 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 61.1%


male: 71.8%


female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 61.1%


male: 71.8%


female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egipt and Erytrea Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egipt and Erytrea
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 18 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 18 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 3 ships (1000 GRT or over) 21,311 GRT/26,179 DWT


by type: cargo 2, livestock carrier 1 (2007)
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 20,466 GRT/26,973 DWT


by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1


registered w other countries: 2 (2005)
Wojsko Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF): Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Forces (2007) Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF): Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $587 million (2001 est.) (2004)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3% (2005 est.) 3% (1999) (2004)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1956) Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1956)
Narodowosc noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Sudanese
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Sudanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms and periodic persistent droughts dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) -0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2007) gas 156 km; oil 2,365 km; refined products 810 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva majardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; note - all political parties listed above w the Government of National Unity the government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised w 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against the regime; approved parties include the National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress or PNC [Hassan al-TURABI], and over 20 minor, pro-government parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI] Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG]; Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]
Ludnosc 39,379,358 (lipiec 2007 est.) 40,187,486 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 40% (2004 est.) 40% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.082% (2007 est.) 2.6% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie - Port Sudan
Stacje radiowe AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998) AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,978 km


narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge dla cotton plantations (2006)
total: 5,995 km


narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km .600-m gauge dla cotton plantations (2004)
Religie Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly w south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs 25% Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly w south and Khartoum)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.011 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.124 male(s)/female


total population: 1.027 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 249; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Arabsat (2000)
general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 636,900 (2006) 900,000 (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 4.683 million (2006) 650,000 (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (1997) 3 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat, featureless plain; mountains w far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north generally flat, featureless plain; mountains w far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.69 children born/woman (2007 est.) 4.85 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18.7% (2002 est.) 18.7% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2006) 4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2004)
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