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Sudan (2001)

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Sudan 2001 roku

 Sudan
Podzial administracyjny 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
44.62% (male 8,227,011; female 7,870,783)

15-64 years:
53.29% (male 9,619,218; female 9,608,469)

65 years and over:
2.09% (male 425,898; female 328,994) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassara, mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Lotniska 61 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
12

over 3,047 m:
1

2,438 to 3,047 m:
8

1,524 to 2,437 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
49

1,524 to 2,437 m:
15

914 to 1,523 m:
25

under 914 m:
9 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
2,505,810 sq km

land:
2.376 million sq km

water:
129,810 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Military dictatorships promulgating an Islamic government have mostly run the country since independence from the UK w 1956. Over the past two decades, a civil war pitting black Christians and animists w the south against the Arab-Muslims of the north has cost at least 1.5 million lives w war- and famine-related deaths, as well as the displacement of millions of others.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 37.89 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$1.2 billion

expenditures:
$1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Khartoum
Klimat tropical w south; arid desert w north; rainy season (kwiecien to pazdziernik)
Linia brzegowa 853 km
Konstytucja 12 kwiecien 1973, suspended following coup of 6 kwiecien 1985; interim constitution of 10 pazdziernik 1985 suspended following coup of 30 czerwiec 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 czerwiec 1998 partially suspended 12 grudzien 1999 by President BASHIR
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of the Sudan

conventional short form:
Sudan

local long form:
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

local short form:
As-Sudan

former:
Anglo-Egiptian Sudan
Waluta Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.04 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $24.9 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA US officials at the US Embassy w Khartoum were moved dla security reasons w luty 1996 and have been relocated to the US Embassies w Nairobi, Kenia, and Cairo, Egipt, from where they make periodic visits to Khartoum; the US Embassy w Khartoum is located on Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address - P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829; telephone - [249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX - [249] (11) 774137; the US Embassy w Nairobi, Kenia is located w the Interim Office Building on Mombasa Road, Nairobi; mailing address - P. O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831; telephone - [254] (2) 751613; FAX - [254] (2) 743204; the US Embassy w Cairo, Egipt is located at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo; mailing address - Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900; telephone - [20] (2) 3557371; FAX - [20] (2) 3573200
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Mahdi Ibrahim MAHAMMAD (recalled to Khartoum w sierpien 1998)

chancery:
2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 338-8565

FAX:
[1] (202) 667-2406
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje administrative boundary z Kenia does not coincide z international boundary; Egipt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $187 million (1997)
Ekonomia Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic instability, adverse weather, weak world agricultural prices, a drop w remittances from abroad, and counterproductive economic policies. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture (which employs 80% of the work force), trading, and light industry which is mostly processing of agricultural goods. Most of the 1990s were characterized by sluggish economic growth as the IMF suspended lending, declared Sudan a non-cooperative state, and threatened to expel Sudan from the IMF. Starting w 1997, Sudan began implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms which have successfully stabilized inflation at 10% or less. Sudan continues to have limited international credit resources as over 75% of Sudan's debt of $24.9 billion is w arrears and Khartoum's continued prosecution of the civil war works to isolate Sudan. In 1999, Sudan began exporting oil and w 1999-2000 had recorded its first trade surpluses. Current oil production stands at 185,000 barrels per day, of which about 70% is exported and the rest refined dla domestic consumption. Despite its many infrastructure problems, Sudan's increased oil production, the return of regular rainfall, and recent investments w irrigation schemes should allow the country to achieve economic growth of 6% w 2001.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.637 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.76 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
42.05%

hydro:
57.95%

nuclear:
0%

other:
0% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Red Sea 0 m

highest point:
Kinyeti 3,187 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 257.44 (styczen 2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55 (1999), 200.80 (1998), 157.57 (1997), 125.08 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 luty 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 luty 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 luty 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 luty 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party (front dla the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates BASHIR's cabinet

elections:
president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results:
Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received less than a combined 4% of the vote

note:
BASHIR assumed supreme executive power w 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments w the early and mid-90s before being popularly elected dla the first time w marzec 1996
Eksport 0 kWh (1999)
Eksport $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary oil and petroleum products, cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Eksport - partnerzy Arabia Saudyjska 16%, Wlochy 10%, Niemcy 5%, Francja 3%, Tajlandia 3% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $35.7 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
39%

industry:
17%

services:
44% (1998 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2000 est.)
Autostrady total:
11,900 km

paved:
4,320 km

unpaved:
7,580 km (1996)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:
NA%

highest 10%:
NA%
Import 0 kWh (1999)
Import $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary foodstuffs, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles
Import - partnerzy Chiny 14.7%, Libia 14.7%, Arabia Saudyjska 8.9%, UK 8.7%, Francja 6.7% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1956 (from Egipt and UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (1996 est.)
Przemysl cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 68.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 10% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Dostawcy internetu 1 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 19,460 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts
Sila robocza 11 million (1996 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government 6%, unemployed 4% (1996 est.)
Granica total:
7,687 km

border countries:
Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,165 km, Czad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egipt 1,273 km, Erytrea 605 km, Etiopia 1,606 km, Kenia 232 km, Libia 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
5%

permanent crops:
0%

permanent pastures:
46%

forests and woodland:
19%

other:
30% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English

note:
program of "Arabization" w process
System prawny based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 styczen 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law w the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (400 seats; 275 elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supra assembly of interest groups known as the National Congress)

elections:
last held 13-23 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results:
NA; few parties participated w the 2000 elections

note:
on 12 grudzien 1999, BASHIR dismissed the National Assembly during an internal power struggle between the president and speaker of the National Assembly Hasan al-TURABI
Zywotnosc total population:
56.94 years

male:
55.85 years

female:
58.08 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
46.1%

male:
57.7%

female:
34.6% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egipt and Erytrea
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary contiguous zone:
18 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,093 GRT/49,727 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force Militia
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $550 million (FY98)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA%
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
8,436,732 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
5,194,862 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
398,294 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1956)
Narodowosc noun:
Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective:
Sudanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms
Surowce naturalne petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi refined products 815 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy the government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised w 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against the regime; approved parties include the National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress [Hassan al-TURABI], and a handful of minor pro-government parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR] (front dla the National Islamic Front or NIF); Popular National Congress [Hassan al-TURABI]; Umma [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Army [Dr. John GARANG]
Ludnosc 36,080,373 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 2.79% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin
Stacje radiowe AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radia 7.55 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
5,311 km

narrow gauge:
4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 716 km 1.6096-m gauge plantation line

note:
the main line linking Khartoum to Port Sudan carries over two-thirds of Sudan's rail traffic
Religie Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly w south and Khartoum)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
1.29 male(s)/female

total population:
1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment:
large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially

domestic:
consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations

international:
satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 400,000 (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 20,000 (2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat, featureless plain; mountains w east and west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4% (1996 est.)
Drogi wodne 5,310 km
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