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Sudan (2006)

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Sudan 2006 roku

 Sudan
Podzial administracyjny 25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa'iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 42.7% (male 8,993,483/female 8,614,022)


15-64 years: 54.9% (male 11,327,679/female 11,297,798)


65 years and over: 2.4% (male 536,754/female 466,642) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Lotniska 88 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 15


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 73


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 18


914 to 1,523 m: 37


under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Terytorium total: 2,505,810 sq km


land: 2.376 million sq km


water: 129,810 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK w 1956. Sudan was embroiled w two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted w northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended w 1972, but broke out again w 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted w more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum w 2002-04 z the signing of several accords; a final Naivasha peace treaty of styczen 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy dla six years, after which a referendum dla independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict that broke out w the western region of Darfur w 2003 has resulted w at least 200,000 deaths and nearly 2 million displaced; as of late 2005, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Etiopia and Czad, and armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 34.53 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $6.182 billion


expenditures: $5.753 billion; including capital expenditures of $304 million (2005 est.)
Stolica name: Khartoum


geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical w south; arid desert w north; rainy season varies by region (kwiecien to listopad)
Linia brzegowa 853 km
Konstytucja 12 kwiecien 1973; suspended following coup of 6 kwiecien 1985; interim constitution of 10 pazdziernik 1985 suspended following coup of 30 czerwiec 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 czerwiec 1998 partially suspended 12 grudzien 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Konstytucja ratified 5 lipiec 2005; Konstytucja of Southern Sudan signed grudzien 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan


conventional short form: Sudan


local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan


local short form: As-Sudan


former: Anglo-Egiptian Sudan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $27.34 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Cameron HUME


embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum


mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829


telephone: [249] (183) 774701


FAX: [249] (183) 774137


note: US Consul w Cairo is providing backup service dla Khartoum; consular services are being established w Juba (southern Sudan)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires, Ad Interim Khidir HAROUN (since kwiecien 2001)


chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565


FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-twentieth century have penetrated all of its border states that provide shelter dla fleeing refugees and cover to disparate domestic and foreign conflicting elements; since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Czad; large numbers of Sudanese refugees have also fled to Uganda, Etiopia, Kenia, the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; southern Sudan provides shelter to Ugandans seeking periodic protection from soldiers of the Lord's Resistance Army; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary z Etiopia have been delayed by civil and ethnic fighting w Sudan; Kenia's administrative boundary extends into the southern Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egipt and Sudan retain claims to administer triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egipt is economically developing the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; periodic violent skirmishes z Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations from the Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie along the border
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $172 million (2001)
Ekonomia Sudan has turned around a struggling economy z sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and w the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along z monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain Produkt krajowy brutto growth at 8.6% w 2004. Agricultural production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of Produkt krajowy brutto, and accounting dla most of Produkt krajowy brutto growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - resulting from the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line dla years.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.943 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.165 billion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Red Sea 0 m


highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003), 263.31 (2002), 258.7 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 sierpien 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 wrzesien 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet


elections: election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000; next to be held no later than lipiec 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement


election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair election


note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council dla National Salvation (RCC) w czerwiec 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-pazdziernik 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote dla the first time w marzec 1996
Eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Eksport $6.989 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport 275,000 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 71.1%, Japonia 12%, Arabia Saudyjska 2.8% (2005)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 38.7%


industry: 20.3%


services: 41% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2003)
Import $5.028 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import 0 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Import - partnerzy Chiny 20.7%, Arabia Saudyjska 9.4%, UAE 5.9%, Egipt 5.5%, Japonia 5.1%, Indie 4.8% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1956 (from Egipt and UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8.5% (1999 est.)
Przemysl oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 61.05 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 61.88 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 60.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 9% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 18,630 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Sila robocza 7.415 million (1996 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%


industry: 7%


services: 13% (1998 est.)
Granica total: 7,687 km


border countries: Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,165 km, Czad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egipt 1,273 km, Erytrea 605 km, Etiopia 1,606 km, Kenia 232 km, Libia 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.78%


permanent crops: 0.17%


other: 93.05% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English


note: program of "Arabization" w process
System prawny based on English common law and Shari'a law; as of 20 styczen 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Shari'a law w the northern states; Shari'a law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Shari'a law will not apply to the southern states
Wladza ustawodawcza bi-cameral body comprising the National Assembly and Council of States (replaced unicameral National Assembly of 360 seats); pending elections and National Election Law, the Presidency appointed 450 members to the National Assembly according to the provisions of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement: 52% NCP; 28% SPLM; 14% other Northerners; 6% other Southerners; 2 representatives from every state constitute the Council of States; terms w each chamber are five years following the first elections


elections: last held 13-22 grudzien 2000 (next to be held 2008-2009 timeframe)


election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Zywotnosc total population: 58.92 years


male: 57.69 years


female: 60.21 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 61.1%


male: 71.8%


female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egipt and Erytrea
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 18 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,326 GRT/14,068 DWT


by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1


registered w other countries: 2 (Panama 1, Arabia Saudyjska 1) (2006)
Wojsko Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF): Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $587 million (2001 est.) (2004)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3% (1999) (2004)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1956)
Narodowosc noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Sudanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi gas 156 km; oil 3,930 km; refined products 1,613 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy political parties w the Government of National Unity include: National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed OMAR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva majardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Ludnosc 41,236,378 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 40% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.55% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,978 km


narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge dla cotton plantations (2005)
Religie Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly w south and Khartoum)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 670,000 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 1.828 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat, featureless plain; mountains w far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.72 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18.7% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2005)
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