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Sudan (2002)

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Sudan 2002 roku

 Sudan
Podzial administracyjny 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 44.2% (male 8,385,554; female 8,023,847)


15-64 years: 53.6% (male 9,945,683; female 9,933,383)


65 years and over: 2.2% (male 447,214; female 354,617) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Lotniska 65 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 12


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 8


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 51 53


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


914 to 1,523 m: 26


under 914 m: 17 11 (2002)
Terytorium total: 2,505,810 sq km


land: 2.376 million sq km


water: 129,810 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Military dictatorships favoring an Islamic-oriented government have dominated national politics since independence from the UK w 1956. Sudan has been embroiled w a civil war dla all but 10 years of this period (1972-82). Since 1983, the war and war- and famine-related effects have led to more than 2 million deaths and over 4 million people displaced. The war pits the Arab/Muslim majority w Khartoum against the non-Muslim African rebels w the south. Since 1989, traditional northern Muslim parties have made common cause z the southern rebels and entered the war as a part of an anti-government alliance.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 37.21 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.6 billion


expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Stolica Khartoum
Klimat tropical w south; arid desert w north; rainy season (kwiecien to pazdziernik)
Linia brzegowa 853 km
Konstytucja 12 kwiecien 1973, suspended following coup of 6 kwiecien 1985; interim constitution of 10 pazdziernik 1985 suspended following coup of 30 czerwiec 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 czerwiec 1998 partially suspended 12 grudzien 1999 by President BASHIR
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan


conventional short form: Sudan


local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan


local short form: As-Sudan


former: Anglo-Egiptian Sudan
Waluta Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.81 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $24.9 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA For security reasons, US officials at the US Embassy w Khartoum were relocated w luty 1996 to the US Embassies w Nairobi, Kenia, and Cairo, Egipt, from where they make regular visits to Khartoum; the US Embassy w Khartoum is located on Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address - P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829; telephone - [249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX - [249] (11) 774137; the US Embassy w Nairobi, Kenia is located w the Interim Office Building on Mombasa Road, Nairobi; mailing address - P. O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831; telephone - [254] (2) 751613; FAX - [254] (2) 743204; the US Embassy w Cairo, Egipt is located at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo; mailing address - Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900; telephone - [20] (2) 3557371; FAX - [20] (2) 3573200
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D'Affairs, Ad Interim Khidir Haroun AHMED (since kwiecien 2001)


chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565


FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Sudan agrees w 2002 to demarcate whole boundary z Etiopia; Egipt and Sudan each claim to administer triangular areas which extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel (the north "Hala'ib Triangle" is the largest z 20,580 sq km); w 2001, the two states agreed to discuss an "area of integration" and withdraw military forces w the overlapping areas; since colonial times, Kenia's administrative boundary has extended beyond its treaty boundary into Sudan creating the "Ilemi Triangle"
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $187 million (1997)
Ekonomia Sudan has turned around a struggling economy z sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems. Starting w 1997 Sudan began implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms that have successfully stabilized inflation. In 1999 Sudan began exporting crude oil and w the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, along z monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Current oil production stands at 220,000 barrels per day, of which some 70% is exported and the rest refined mostly dla domestic consumption. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones should maintain Produkt krajowy brutto growth at 5% w 2002. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force and contributing 43% of Produkt krajowy brutto, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Sudan is also constrained by its limited access to international credit; most of Sudan's $24.9 billion debt remains w arrears. The civil war, chronic instability, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line dla years.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1,832.1 million kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.97 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 49%


hydro: 51%


nuclear: 0%


other: 0% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Red Sea 0 m


highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 261.44 (styczen 2002), 258.70 (2001), 257.12 (2000), 252.55 (1999), 200.80 (1998), 157.57 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 luty 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 luty 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 pazdziernik 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 luty 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 luty 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates BASHIR's cabinet


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 13-23 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)


election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received less than a combined 4% of the vote; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees dla a free and fair poll


note: BASHIR assumed supreme executive power w 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments w the early and mid-90s before being popularly elected dla the first time w marzec 1996
Eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Eksport $2.1 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Eksport - towary oil and petroleum products, cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Eksport - partnerzy Japonia 25%, Chiny 19%, Arabia Saudyjska 14%, Niemcy 4%, (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $49.3 billion (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 43%


industry: 17%


services: 40% (1999 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,360 (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.5% (2001 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2002)
Autostrady total: 11,900 km


paved: 4,320 km


unpaved: 7,580 km (1996)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2000)
Import $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Import - towary foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Import - partnerzy Chiny 12%, Arabia Saudyjska 10%, UK 10%, Niemcy 7% (2000)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1956 (from Egipt and UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8.5% (1999 est.)
Przemysl oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 67.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 10% (2001 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Dostawcy internetu 2 (2002)
Nawadniane tereny 19,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts
Sila robocza 11 million (1996 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)
Granica total: 7,687 km


border countries: Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,165 km, Czad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egipt 1,273 km, Erytrea 605 km, Etiopia 1,606 km, Kenia 232 km, Libia 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 7.03%


permanent crops: 0.08%


other: 92.89% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English


note: program of "Arabization" w process
System prawny based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 styczen 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law w the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (360 seats; 270 popularly elected, 90 elected by supra assembly of interest groups known as National Congress; members serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 13-22 grudzien 2000 (next to be held NA grudzien 2004)


election results: NCP 355, others 5


note: on 12 grudzien 1999, BASHIR dismissed the National Assembly during an internal power struggle between the president and the speaker of the National Assembly Hassan al-TURABI
Zywotnosc total population: 57.33 years


male: 56.22 years


female: 58.5 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 46.1%


male: 57.7%


female: 34.6% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egipt and Erytrea
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary contiguous zone: 18 NM


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,545 GRT/51,195 DWT


ships by type: cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force Militia
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $581 million (2001 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (1999)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 8,739,982 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 5,380,917 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 398,294 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1956)
Narodowosc noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Sudanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi refined products 815 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy the government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised w 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against the regime; approved parties include the National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress or PNC [Hassan al-TURABI], and over 20 minor, pro-government parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR]; Popular National Congress [Hassan al-TURABI]; Umma [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG]
Ludnosc 37,090,298 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 2.73% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin
Stacje radiowe AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radia 7.55 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,995 km


narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge plantation line


note: the 1.067-m line from Khartoum to Port Sudan carries over two-thirds of Sudan's rail traffic; the 0.600-m gauge system serves Sudan's cotton plantations z over 120 collecting stations (2001)
Religie Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly w south and Khartoum)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.26 male(s)/female


total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started w 1996 and have expanded substantially


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 400,000 (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 20,000 (2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat, featureless plain; mountains w east and west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.22 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18.7% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 5,310 km
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