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Ecuador (2008)

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Ecuador 2008 year

Administrative divisions 24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Age structure 0-14 years: 32.6% (male 2,282,319/female 2,196,685)

15-64 years: 62.3% (male 4,271,848/female 4,301,149)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 330,302/female 373,377) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Airports 406 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 104

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 26

under 914 m: 54 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 302

914 to 1,523 m: 34

under 914 m: 268 (2007)
Area total: 283,560 sq km

land: 276,840 sq km

water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Nevada
Background What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Protests in Quito have contributed to the mid-term ouster of Ecuador's last three democratically elected Presidents.
Birth rate 21.91 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $13.1 billion

expenditures: planned $11.3 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Quito

geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Coastline 2,237 km
Constitution 10 August 1998
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: Republica del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador
Death rate 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $17.56 billion (31 October 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Linda L. JEWELL

embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address: APO AA 34039

telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890

FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Benigno GALLEGOS Chiriboga

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Jersey City (New Jersey), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Disputes - international organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
Economic aid - recipient $209.5 million (2005)
Economy - overview Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of public sector revenues in recent years. In 1999/2000, Ecuador suffered a severe economic crisis, with GDP contracted by more than 6%, with a significant increase in poverty. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. From 2002-2006 the economy grew 5.5%, the highest five-year average in 25 years. The poverty rate declined but remained high at 38% in 2006. In 2006 the government of Alfredo PALACIO (2005-07) seized the assets of Occidental Petroleum for alleged contract violations and imposed a windfall revenue tax on foreign oil companies, leading to the suspension of free trade negotiations with the US. These measures, combined with chronic underinvestment in the state oil company, Petroecuador, led to a drop in petroleum production in 2007. PALACIO's successor, Rafael CORREA, raised the specter of debt default - but Ecuador has paid its debt on time. He also decreed a higher windfall revenue tax on private oil companies, then sought to renegotiate their contracts to overcome the debilitating effect of the tax. This generated economic uncertainty; private investment has dropped and economic growth has slowed significantly.
Electricity - consumption 8.855 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 16 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 1.723 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 12.94 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Exchange rates 1 the US dollar is used; the sucre was eliminated in 2000
Executive branch chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 October 2006 with a runoff election on 26 November 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)

election results: Rafael CORREA Delgado elected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 56.7%; Alvaro NOBOA 43.3%
Exports 16 million kWh (2005)
Exports $13.3 billion (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 420,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, hemp, wood, fish
Exports - partners US 53.6%, Peru 8.2%, Colombia 5.6%, Chile 4.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 10%

industry: 35%

services: 54% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.6% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Geography - note Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 35%

note: data for urban households only (October 2006)
Illicit drugs significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with over half of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents
Imports 1.723 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $13 billion (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 44,680 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods
Imports - partners US 23.1%, Colombia 13.3%, Brazil 7.3%, Panama 4% (2006)
Independence 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 1.4% (2007 est.)
Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Infant mortality rate total: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2007 est.)
Irrigated land 8,650 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Labor force 4.55 million (urban) (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 8%

industry: 24%

services: 68% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 2,010 km

border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Land use arable land: 5.71%

permanent crops: 4.81%

other: 89.48% (2005)
Languages Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRIAN 28; PSP 24; PSC 13; ID 7; PRE 6; MUPP-NP 6; RED 5; UDC 5; other 6; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties; as of 29 November 2007, Congress is on indefinite recess
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.62 years

male: 73.74 years

female: 79.63 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91%

male: 92.3%

female: 89.7% (2001 census)
Location Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Merchant marine total: 33 ships (1000 GRT or over) 190,931 GRT/306,280 DWT

by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 22, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Philippines 1, US 1)

registered in other countries: 3 (China 1, Panama 2) (2007)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.8% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Nationality noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines extra heavy crude oil 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,389 km; refined products 1,185 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Alianza PAIS Movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Christian Democratic Union or UDC [Diego ORDONEZ Guerrero]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP; Democratic Left or ID [Andres PAEZ Benalcazar]; Ethical and Democratic Network or RED [Leon ROLDOS]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Ciro GUZMAN Aldaz]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Gustavo AYALA Cruz]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
Population 13,755,680 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 38.3% (2006)
Population growth rate 1.554% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Railways total: 966 km

narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.993 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.885 male(s)/female

total population: 1.002 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Telephone system general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded

domestic: fixed-line services provided by three state-owned enterprises; plans to transfer the state-owned operators to private ownership have repeatedly failed; fixed-line density stands at about 13 per 100 persons; mobile cellular use has surged and has a subscribership of nearly 65 per 100 persons

international: country code - 593; landing point for the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable that provides links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.754 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 8.485 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2000)
Terrain coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Total fertility rate 2.63 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.8% (2007 est.)
Waterways 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2006)
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