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Ecuador (2006)

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Ecuador 2006 year

Administrative divisions 22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Age structure 0-14 years: 33% (male 2,281,499/female 2,195,551)

15-64 years: 61.9% (male 4,178,653/female 4,210,766)

65 years and over: 5% (male 319,719/female 361,322) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Airports 359 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 98

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 29

under 914 m: 43 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 261

914 to 1,523 m: 33

under 914 m: 228 (2006)
Area total: 283,560 sq km

land: 276,840 sq km

water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Nevada
Background What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence by 1819 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Seven presidents have governed Ecuador since 1996.
Birth rate 22.29 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $8.822 billion

expenditures: planned $8.153 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2005 est.)
Capital name: Quito

geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Coastline 2,237 km
Constitution 10 August 1998
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: Republica del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador
Death rate 4.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $18.09 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Linda L. JEWELL

embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address: APO AA 34039

telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890

FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Benigno GALLEGOS Chiriboga

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Jersey City (New Jersey), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Disputes - international organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border and caused over 20,000 refugees to flee into Ecuador in 2004
Economic aid - recipient $216 million (2002)
Economy - overview Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources, which have accounted for 40% of the country's export earnings and one-third of central government budget revenues in recent years. Consequently, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. In the late 1990s, Ecuador suffered its worst economic crisis, with natural disasters and sharp declines in world petroleum prices driving Ecuador's economy into free fall in 1999. Real GDP contracted by more than 6%, with poverty worsening significantly. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. The currency depreciated by some 70% in 1999, and, on the brink of hyperinflation, the MAHAUD government announced it would dollarize the economy. A coup, however, ousted MAHAUD from office in January 2000, and after a short-lived junta failed to garner military support, Vice President Gustavo NOBOA took over the presidency. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. Under the administration of Lucio GUTIERREZ - January 2003 to April 2005 - Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices. However, the government under Alfredo PALACIO has reversed economic reforms that reduced Ecuador's vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises, allowing the central government greater access to oil windfalls and disbursing surplus retirement funds.
Electricity - consumption 10.55 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 65 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 140 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 11.27 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Exchange rates 25,000 (2005), 25,000 (2004), 25,000 (2003), 25,000 (2002), 25,000 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Alfredo PALACIO (since 20 April 2005); Vice President Nicanor Alejandro SERRANO Aguilar (since 5 May 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former President Lucio GUTIERREZ was removed from office by congress effective 20 April 2005

head of government: President Alfredo PALACIO (since 20 April 2005); Vice President Nicanor Alejandro SERRANO Aguilar (since 5 May 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 October 2006 with a runoff election scheduled for 26 November 2006 (next to be held October 2010)

election results: results of the 15 October 2006 election; percent of vote - Alvaro NOBOA 26.8%; Rafael CORREA 22.8%; Gilmar GUTIERREZ 17.4%; Leon ROLDOS Aguilera 14.8%; Cynthia VITERI 9.6%; note - a runoff election will be held 26 November 2006 between NOBOA and CORREA
Exports 65 million kWh (2003)
Exports $9.224 billion (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 387,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp
Exports - partners US 51.1%, Peru 8%, Germany 4.4%, Colombia 4.3% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 7%

industry: 31.2%

services: 61.8% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.7% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Geography - note Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Heliports 1 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 32%

note: data for urban households only (October 2003)
Illicit drugs significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents
Imports 140 million kWh (2003)
Imports $8.436 billion (2005 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities vehicles, medicinal products, telecommunications equipment, electricity
Imports - partners US 22.3%, Colombia 14.9%, Venezuela 7.8%, Brazil 6%, China 5.3% (2005)
Independence 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 2.1% (2005 est.)
Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Infant mortality rate total: 22.87 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 27.42 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 18.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.1% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 8,650 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Labor force 4.6 million (urban) (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 8%

industry: 24%

services: 68% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 2,010 km

border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Land use arable land: 5.71%

permanent crops: 4.81%

other: 89.48% (2005)
Languages Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20 October 2002 (next to be held October 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSC 25, ID 16, PRE 15, PRIAN 10, PSP 9, Pachakutik Movement 6, MPD 5, DP 4, PS-FA 3, independents 7; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.42 years

male: 73.55 years

female: 79.43 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 94%

female: 91% (2003 est.)
Location Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Merchant marine total: 31 ships (1000 GRT or over) 184,819 GRT/300,339 DWT

by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 7, petroleum tanker 21, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 1, Paraguay 1)

registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2006)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes naval infantry, naval aviation, coast guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $650 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Nationality noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -3.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines extra heavy crude 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,386 km; refined products 1,185 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Guillermo LANDAZURI]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Movement [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Leon FEBRES CORDERO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
Population 13,547,510 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 41% (2003)
Population growth rate 1.5% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Railways total: 966 km

narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Telephone system general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded

domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1,701,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6.246 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Total fertility rate 2.68 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.7% official rate; but underemployment of 47% (2005 est.)
Waterways 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2005)
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