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Ecuador (2004)

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Ecuador 2004 year

Administrative divisions 22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.9% (male 2,285,775; female 2,199,356)

15-64 years: 61.2% (male 4,020,873; female 4,062,672)

65 years and over: 4.9% (male 302,129; female 341,937) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Airports 205 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 62

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 143

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 113 (2004 est.)
Area total: 283,560 sq km

land: 276,840 sq km

water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Nevada
Background The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Nine presidents have governed Ecuador since 1996.
Birth rate 23.18 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $6.908 billion

expenditures: planned $6.594 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2003)
Capital Quito
Climate tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Coastline 2,237 km
Constitution 10 August 1998
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: Republica del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 4.26 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $15.69 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie Anne KENNEY

embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address: APO AA 34039

telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890

FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
Disputes - international the continuing civil disorder in Colombia has created a serious refugee crisis in neighboring states, especially Ecuador
Economic aid - recipient $120 million (2001)
Economy - overview Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources, which have accounted for 40% of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of public sector revenues in recent years. Consequently, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. In the late 1990s, Ecuador suffered its worst economic crisis, with natural disasters and sharp declines in world petroleum prices driving Ecuador's economy into free fall in 1999. Real GDP contracted by more than 6%, with poverty worsening significantly. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. The currency depreciated by some 70% in 1999, and, on the brink of hyperinflation, the MAHAUD government announced it would dollarize the economy. A coup, however, ousted MAHAUD from office in January 2000, and after a short-lived junta failed to garner military support, Vice President Gustavo NOBOA took over the presidency. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. Under the administration of Lucio GUTIERREZ, who took office in January 2003, Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices, but the government has made little progress on fiscal reforms and reforms of state-owned enterprises necessary to reduce Ecuador's vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises.
Electricity - consumption 69.96 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 75.23 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Exchange rates Ecuador formally adopted the US dollar as legal tender in March 2000
Executive branch chief of state: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (no immediate reelection); election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)

election results: results of the 24 November 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $6.073 billion (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp
Exports - partners US 42.4%, Colombia 5.7%, Germany 5.6% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
GDP purchasing power parity - $45.65 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8.7%

industry: 29.7%

services: 61.6% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,300 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Geography - note Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 43,197 km

paved: 8,164 km

unpaved: 35,033 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 33.8% (1995)
Illicit drugs significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime, especially vulnerable along the border with Colombia; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $6.22 billion (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities consumer goods, industrial raw materials, capital goods
Imports - partners US 23.9%, Colombia 12.8%, Venezuela 7.1%, Brazil 6.1%, Chile 4.8%, Japan 4.2% (2003)
Independence 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 5.3% (2003 est.)
Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Infant mortality rate total: 24.49 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 29.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.9% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 8,650 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema; note - per the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; In December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution
Labor force 4.36 million (urban) (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,010 km

border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Land use arable land: 5.85%

permanent crops: 4.93%

other: 89.22% (2001)
Languages Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSC 25, PRE 15, ID 16, PRIAN 10, PSP 9, Pachakutik Movement 6, MPD 5, DP 4, PS-FA 3, independents 7; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.01 years

male: 73.15 years

female: 79 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 94%

female: 91% (2003 est.)
Location Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Merchant marine total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 241,403 GRT/391,898 DWT

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 21, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: Greece 1, Paraguay 1, Peru 1

registered in other countries: 3 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $650 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.4% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,440,371 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,315,808 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 132,476 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Nationality noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -8.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines extra heavy crude 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,386 km; refined products 1,185 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Guillermo LANDAZURI]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Movement [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Leon FEBRES CORDERO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]
Population 13,212,742 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 65% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 1.03% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo
Radio broadcast stations AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Railways total: 966 km

narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Telephone system general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded

domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.549 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,394,400 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Total fertility rate 2.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.8%; note - underemployment of 47% (2003 est.)
Waterways 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2003)
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