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Ecuador (2005)

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Ecuador 2005 year

Administrative divisions 22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.5% (male 2,282,252/female 2,195,942)

15-64 years: 61.5% (male 4,094,146/female 4,130,096)

65 years and over: 4.9% (male 310,336/female 350,821) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Airports 205 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 62

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 143

914 to 1,523 m: 30

under 914 m: 113 (2004 est.)
Area total: 283,560 sq km

land: 276,840 sq km

water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Nevada
Background The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Seven presidents have governed Ecuador since 1996.
Birth rate 22.67 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $7.9 billion

expenditures: planned $7.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2004 est.)
Capital Quito
Climate tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Coastline 2,237 km
Constitution 10 August 1998
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: Republica del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador
Death rate 4.24 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $16.81 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie Anne KENNEY

embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address: APO AA 34039

telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890

FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Jersey City (New Jersey), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border and caused over 20,000 refugees to flee into Ecuador in 2004
Economic aid - recipient $216 million (2002)
Economy - overview Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources, which have accounted for 40% of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of central government budget revenues in recent years. Consequently, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. In the late 1990s, Ecuador suffered its worst economic crisis, with natural disasters and sharp declines in world petroleum prices driving Ecuador's economy into free fall in 1999. Real GDP contracted by more than 6%, with poverty worsening significantly. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. The currency depreciated by some 70% in 1999, and, on the brink of hyperinflation, the MAHAUD government announced it would dollarize the economy. A coup, however, ousted MAHAUD from office in January 2000, and after a short-lived junta failed to garner military support, Vice President Gustavo NOBOA took over the presidency. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. Under the administration of Lucio GUTIERREZ - January 2003 to April 2005 - Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices, but the government has made little progress on economic reforms necessary to reduce Ecuador's vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises.
Electricity - consumption 10.79 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 57 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 11.54 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Exchange rates 25,000 (2004), 25,000 (2003), 25,000 (2002), 25,000 (2001), 24,988 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Alfredo PALACIO (since 20 April 2005); Vice President Nicanor Alejandro SERRANO Aguilar (since 5 May 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former President Lucio GUTIERREZ was removed from office by congress effective 20 April 2005

head of government: President Alfredo PALACIO (since 20 April 2005); Vice President Nicanor Alejandro SERRANO Aguilar (since 5 May 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (no immediate reelection); election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held October 2006)

election results: results of the 24 November 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%; note - Vice President Alfredo PALACIO assumed the presidency on 20 April 2005 after congress removed Lucio GUTIERREZ from office
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $7.56 billion (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 387,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp
Exports - partners US 42.9%, Panama 14.3%, Peru 7.9%, Italy 4.6% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8.7%

industry: 30.5%

services: 60.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.8% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Geography - note Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Heliports 1 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 43,197 km

paved: 8,164 km

unpaved: 35,033 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 32%

note: data for urban households only (October 2003)
Illicit drugs significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime, especially vulnerable along the border with Colombia; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents
Imports 57 million kWh (2002)
Imports $7.65 billion (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities vehicles, medicinal products, telecommunications equipment, electricity
Imports - partners US 16.5%, Colombia 14.1%, China 9.2%, Venezuela 7.1%, Brazil 6.5%, Chile 4.6%, Japan 4.5%, Mexico 4.3% (2004)
Independence 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 10% (2004 est.)
Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Infant mortality rate total: 23.66 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 18.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2004 est.)
Irrigated land 8,650 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Labor force 4.53 million (urban) (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 8%, industry 24%, services 68% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 2,010 km

border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Land use arable land: 5.85%

permanent crops: 4.93%

other: 89.22% (2001)
Languages Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 20 October 2002 (next to be held October 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PSC 25, PRE 15, ID 16, PRIAN 10, PSP 9, Pachakutik Movement 6, MPD 5, DP 4, PS-FA 3, independents 7; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.21 years

male: 73.35 years

female: 79.22 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 94%

female: 91% (2003 est.)
Location Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Merchant marine total: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 241,403 GRT/391,898 DWT

by type: chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 20

foreign-owned: 3 (Germany 1, Greece 1, Paraguay 1) (2005)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $655 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (2004)
National holiday Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Nationality noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines extra heavy crude 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,386 km; refined products 1,185 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Guillermo LANDAZURI]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Movement [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Leon FEBRES CORDERO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]
Population 13,363,593 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 45% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 1.24% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
Radio broadcast stations AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Railways total: 966 km

narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Telephone system general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded

domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.549 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,394,400 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Total fertility rate 2.72 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.1%; note - underemployment of 47% (2004 est.)
Waterways 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2003)
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