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Ecuador (2002)

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Ecuador 2002 year

Administrative divisions 22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Age structure 0-14 years: 35.4% (male 2,415,764; female 2,337,095)

15-64 years: 60.2% (male 4,007,495; female 4,090,957)

65 years and over: 4.4% (male 276,482; female 319,701) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Airports 205 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 61

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 18 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 144

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 113 (2002)
Area total: 283,560 sq km

land: 276,840 sq km

water: 6,720 sq km

note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Nevada
Background The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.
Birth rate 25.47 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $5.6 billion

expenditures: planned $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Quito
Climate tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Coastline 2,237 km
Constitution 10 August 1998
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form: Ecuador

local long form: Republica del Ecuador

local short form: Ecuador
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $14 billion (2001) (2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie Anne KENNEY

embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito

mailing address: APO AA 34039

telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890

FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052

consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI

chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200

FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $120 million (2001) (2001)
Economy - overview Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its accession commitments. The aftermath of El Nino and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a 70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which forced a desperate government to "dollarize" the currency regime in 2000. The move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the ouster of the government. Gustavo NOBOA, who assumed the presidency in January 2000, has managed to pass substantial economic reforms and mend relations with international financial institutions. Ecuador completed its first standby agreement since 1986 when the IMF Board approved a 10 December 2001 disbursement of $96 million, the final installment of a $300 million standby credit agreement.
Electricity - consumption 9.667 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 10.395 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 25%

hydro: 75%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Exchange rates sucres per US dollar - 25,000.0 (January 2002), 25,000.0 (2001), 24,988.4 (2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997)

note: on 13 March 2000, the National Congress approved a new exchange system whereby the US dollar was adopted as the main legal tender in Ecuador for all purposes; on 20 March 2000, the Central Bank of Ecuador started to exchange sucres for US dollars at a fixed rate of 25,000 sucres per US dollar; since 30 April 2000, all transactions are denominated in US dollars
Executive branch chief of state: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)

election results: results of the 24 November 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $4.8 billion (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa, cut flowers, fish
Exports - partners US 38%, Peru 6%, Chile 5%, Colombia 5%, Italy 3% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
GDP purchasing power parity - $39.6 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11%

industry: 25%

services: 64% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.3% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Geography - note Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 43,197 km

paved: 8,165 km

unpaved: 35,032 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 34% (1995) (1995)
Illicit drugs significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; dollarization may raise the volume of money-laundering activity, especially along the border with Colombia; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $4.8 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw materials, fuels; consumer goods
Imports - partners US 25%, Colombia 13%, Japan 8%, Venezuela 8%, Brazil 4% (2000)
Independence 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 5.1% (2001 est.)
Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber
Infant mortality rate 33.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 22% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 31 (2001)
Irrigated land 8,650 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court)
Labor force 3.7 million (urban)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,010 km

border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Land use arable land: 5.69%

permanent crops: 5.15%

other: 89.16% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (123 seats; 20 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to serve four-year terms; 103 members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held 20 October 2002)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.61 years

male: 68.79 years

female: 74.57 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.1%

male: 92%

female: 88.2% (1995 est.)
Location Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Map references South America
Maritime claims continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands

territorial sea: 200 NM
Merchant marine total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 239,876 GRT/393,680 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 23, specialized tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chile 1, Greece 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $720 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.4% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,468,678 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,337,944 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 132,978 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Nationality noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km
Political parties and leaders Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Jacinto JIJON Y CAMANO]; Independent National Movement or MIN [Eliseo AZUERO]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Miguel LLUCO]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Leonidas IZA, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]
Population 13,447,494 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 1.96% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo
Radio broadcast stations AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Radios 5 million (2001)
Railways total: 965 km

narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2000 est.)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Telephone system general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded

domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1,115,272 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 384,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Total fertility rate 3.05 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 14%; note - widespread underemployment (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,500 km
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