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Somalia (2008)

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Somalia 2008 roku

 Somalia
Podzial administracyjny 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 44.4% (male 2,031,682/female 2,019,629)


15-64 years: 53% (male 2,423,602/female 2,410,126)


65 years and over: 2.6% (male 97,932/female 135,802) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Lotniska 67 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 7


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 60


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 20


914 to 1,523 m: 29


under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Terytorium total: 637,657 sq km


land: 627,337 sq km


water: 10,320 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Texas
Tlo historyczne Britain withdrew from British Somaliland w 1960 to allow its protectorate to join z Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered w an authoritarian socialist rule that managed to impose a degree of stability w the country dla a couple of decades. After the regime's collapse early w 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In maj 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring self-declared autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border z Somaliland as it also claims portions of eastern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning w 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily w the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew w 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. A two-year peace process, led by the Government of Kenia under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), concluded w pazdziernik 2004 z the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia and the formation of an interim government, known as the Somalia Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs). The Somalia TFIs include a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA), a transitional Prime Minister, Nur "Adde" Hassan HUSSEIN, and a 90-member cabinet. The TFIs are based on the Transitional Federal Charter, which outlines a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. While its institutions remain weak, the TFG continues to reach out to Somali stakeholders and work z international donors to help build the governance capacity of the TFIs and work towards national elections w 2009. In czerwiec 2006, a loose coalition of clerics, business leaders, and Islamic court militias known as the Council of Islamic Courts (CIC) defeated powerful Mogadishu warlords and took control of the capital. The Courts continued to expand militarily throughout much of southern Somalia and threatened to overthrow the TFG w Baidoa. Etiopian and TFG forces, concerned over links between some CIC factions and the al-Qaida East Africa network and the al-Qaida operatives responsible dla the bombings of the US embassies w Tanzania and Kenia w 1998, intervened w late grudzien 2006, resulting w the collapse of the CIC as an organization. However, the TFG continues to face violent resistance from extremist elements, such as the al-Shabaab militia previously affiliated z the now-defunct CIC.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 44.6 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $NA


expenditures: $NA
Stolica name: Mogadishu


geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 22 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat principally desert; northeast monsoon (grudzien to luty), moderate temperatures w north and hot w south; southwest monsoon (maj to pazdziernik), torrid w the north and hot w the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Linia brzegowa 3,025 km
Konstytucja 25 sierpien 1979, presidential approval 23 wrzesien 1979


note: the formation of transitional governing institutions, known as the Transitional Federal Government, is currently ongoing
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Somalia


local long form: Jamhuuriyada Demuqraadiga Soomaaliyeed


local short form: Soomaaliya


former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 16.28 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA the US does not have an embassy w Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy w Nairobi, Kenia at United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; mailing address: Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000; FAX [254] (20) 363-6157
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA Somalia does not have an embassy w the US (ceased operations on 8 maj 1991); note - the TFG is represented w the Stany Zjednoczone through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Etiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu w styczen 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities w Berbera to landlocked Etiopia and have established commercial ties z other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support w their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Etiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenia works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting w Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $236.4 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy, largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Agriculture is the most important sector, z livestock normally accounting dla about 40% of Produkt krajowy brutto and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock dla their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and sold as scrap metal. Somalia's service sector also has grown. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services w most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money exchange services have sprouted throughout the country, handling between $500 million and $1 billion w remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported z private-security militias. Somalia's arrears to the IMF continued to grow w 2006-07. Statistics on Somalia's Produkt krajowy brutto, growth, per capita income, and inflation should be viewed skeptically. In late grudzien 2004, a major tsunami caused an estimated 150 deaths and resulted w destruction of property w coastal areas.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 251.1 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 270 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
Grupy etniczne Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)
Kurs waluty Somali shillings per US dollar - NA (2007), 1,438.3 (2006) official rate; the unofficial black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per dollar as of luty 2007


note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shilling
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Transitional Federal President Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed (since 14 pazdziernik 2004); note - a transitional governing entity z a five-year mandate, known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), was established w pazdziernik 2004; the TFIs relocated to Somalia w czerwiec 2004


head of government: Prime Minister Nur "Adde" Hassan HUSSEIN (since 24 listopad 2007) State requested addition of "Adde" Feb '08


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly


election results: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the former leader of the semi-autonomous Puntland region of Somalia, was elected president by the Transitional Federal Assembly
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $300 million f.o.b. (2006)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Eksport - partnerzy UAE 49.6%, Jemen 21.4%, Oman 5.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy NA
Opis flagi light blue z a large white five-pointed star w the center; blue field influenced by the flag of the UN
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 65%


industry: 10%


services: 25% (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 N, 49 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
Wladze - uwagi although an interim government was created w 2004, other regional and local governing bodies continue to exist and control various regions of the country, including the self-declared Republic of Somaliland w northwestern Somalia and the semi-autonomous State of Puntland w northeastern Somalia
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $798 million f.o.b. (2006)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 4,800 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
Import - partnerzy Dzibuti 30.8%, Brazylia 8.5%, Indie 8.2%, Kenia 8.1%, Oman 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Jemen 5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 lipiec 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 czerwiec 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 lipiec 1960, to form the Somali Republic)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 113.08 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 122.29 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 103.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja NA%; note - businesses print their own money, so inflation rates cannot be easily determined
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Nawadniane tereny 2,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo following the breakdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Shari'a (Islamic) law z a provision dla appeal of all sentences
Sila robocza 3.7 million (few skilled laborers) (1975)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 71%


industry and services: 29% (1975)
Granica total: 2,340 km


border countries: Dzibuti 58 km, Etiopia 1,600 km, Kenia 682 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 1.64%


permanent crops: 0.04%


other: 98.32% (2005)
Jezyki Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
System prawny no national system; a mixture of English common law, Italian law, Islamic Shari'a, and Somali customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly


note: unicameral Transitional Federal Assembly (TFA) (275 seats; 244 members appointed by the four major clans (61 dla each clan), 31 seats allocated to smaller clans and subclans)
Zywotnosc total population: 48.84 years


male: 47.06 years


female: 50.69 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 37.8%


male: 49.7%


female: 25.8% (2001 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Ocean Indyjski, east of Etiopia
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 2,659 GRT/2,540 DWT


by type: cargo 1


foreign-owned: 1 (UAE 1) (2007)
Wojsko no national-level armed forces (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.9% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 lipiec (1960); note - 26 czerwiec (1960) w Somaliland
Narodowosc noun: Somali(s)


adjective: Somali
Naturalne zagrozenia recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains w summer; floods during rainy season
Surowce naturalne uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy none
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both w support and w opposition to the transitional government
Ludnosc 9,118,773


note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken w 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting w Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements w response to famine and clan warfare (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 2.832% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 11 (also 1 station each w Puntland and Somaliland), shortwave 1 (in Mogadishu) (2001)
Religie Sunni Muslim
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.006 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.006 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.721 male(s)/female


total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny ngeneral assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private wireless companies offer service w most major cities and charge the lowest international rates on the continent


domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established w Mogadishu and w several other population centers


international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 100,000 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 500,000 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (2 w Mogadishu and 2 w Hargeisa) (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 6.68 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
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