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Somalia (2001)

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Somalia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Age structure 0-14 years:
44.54% (male 1,670,320; female 1,665,329)

15-64 years:
52.69% (male 1,993,750; female 1,952,437)

65 years and over:
2.77% (male 91,511; female 115,426) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cattle, sheep, goats; bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; fish
Airports 62 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
11 (2000 est.)
Area total:
637,657 sq km

627,337 sq km

10,320 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Background A SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy followed for nine years. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland which now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence, aided by the overwhelming dominance of the ruling clan and economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs. The regions of Bari and Nugaal comprise a neighboring self-declared Republic of Puntland, which has also made strides towards reconstructing legitimate, representative government. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. A Transitional National Government (TNG) was created in October 2000 in Arta, Djibouti which was attended by a broad representation of Somali clans. The TNG has a three-year mandate to create a permanent national Somali government. The TNG does not recognize Somaliland or Puntland as independent republics but so far has been unable to reunite them with the unstable regions in the south; numerous warlords and factions are still fighting for control of Mogadishu and the other southern regions.
Birth rate 47.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:

$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Capital Mogadishu
Climate principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Coastline 3,025 km
Constitution 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

the Transitional National Government formed in October 2000 has a mandate to create a new constitution and hold elections within three years
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:

Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
Currency Somali shilling (SOS)
Death rate 18.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $2.6 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi at Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mail address: P. O. Box 30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (2) 334141; FAX [254] (2) 340838
Diplomatic representation in the US Somalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991)
Disputes - international most of the southern half of the boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden
Economic aid - recipient $191.5 million (1995)
Economy - overview One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock and bananas are the principal exports; sugar, sorghum, corn, fish, and qat are products for the domestic market. The small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut down because of the civil strife. Moreover, ongoing civil disturbances in Mogadishu and outlying areas have interfered with any substantial economic advance and with international aid arrangements. Due to the civil strife, economic data is susceptible to an exceptionally wide margin of error.
Electricity - consumption 241.8 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 260 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Shimbiris 2,416 m
Environment - current issues famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to:
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified:
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000
Exchange rates Somali shillings per US dollar - 11,000 (November 2000), 2,620 (January 1999), 7,500 (November 1997 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616 (1 July 1993)

the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shilling
Executive branch chief of state:
ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan (since 26 August 2000); note - Interim President ABDIKASSIM was chosen for a three-year term by a 245-member National Assembly serving as a transitional government; the present political situation is still unstable, particularly in the south, with interclan fighting and random banditry

head of government:
ALI Khalifa Galaydh, appointed by the president 8 October 2000

appointed by the prime minister and sworn in on 20 October 2000

election results:
ABDIKASSIM Salad Hassan was elected president of an interim government at the Djibouti-sponsored Arta Peace Conference on 26 August 2000 by a broad representation of Somali clans that comprised a transitional National Assembly.
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $186 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
Exports - commodities livestock, bananas, hides, fish (1999)
Exports - partners Saudi Arabia 53%, Yemen 19%, UAE 14%, Italy 5%, Pakistan 2% (1999)
Fiscal year NA
Flag description light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:

10% (largely shut down in 2000)

30% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $600 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 10 00 N, 49 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
Highways total:
22,100 km

2,608 km

19,492 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $314 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
Imports - commodities manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials (1995)
Imports - partners Djibouti 24%, Kenya 14%, Brazil 13%, Saudi Arabia 10%, India 9% (1999)
Independence 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down), wireless communication
Infant mortality rate 123.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) over 100% (businesses print their own money) (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch following the breakdown of national government, most regions have reverted to Islamic (Shari'a) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences
Labor force 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers) (1993 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry and services 29%
Land boundaries total:
2,366 km

border countries:
Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

3% (1993 est.)
Languages Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Legal system NA
Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Golaha Shacbiga

fledgling parliament; a transitional 245-member National Assembly began to meet on 13 August 2000 in the town of Arta, Djibouti and is now based in Mogadishu
Life expectancy at birth total population:
46.6 years

44.99 years

48.25 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


14% (1990 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea:
200 NM
Merchant marine none (2000 est.)
Military branches A Somali National Army is being reformed under the interim government; numerous factions and clans maintain independent militias, and the Somaliland and Puntland regional governments maintain their own security and police forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,825,302 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,011,400 (2001 est.)
National holiday Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Natural resources uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt
Net migration rate 5.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 15 km
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying for power
Population 7,488,773

this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.48% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu (Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 4 (1988)
Radios 470,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Sunni Muslim
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.79 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
the public telecommunications system was completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief organizations depend on their own private systems

recently, local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers

international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite
Telephones - main lines in use NA
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations 1 (1997)
Terrain mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Total fertility rate 7.11 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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