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Yemen (2008)

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Yemen 2008 year

Administrative divisions 19 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Shabwah, Ta'izz

note: for electoral and administrative purposes, the capital city of Sanaa is treated as an additional governorate
Age structure 0-14 years: 46.3% (male 5,239,003/female 5,047,301)

15-64 years: 51.1% (male 5,781,491/female 5,585,152)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 281,121/female 296,463) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
Airports 50 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 17

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 33

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Area total: 527,970 sq km

land: 527,970 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
Area - comparative slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Background North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.
Birth rate 42.67 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $7.902 billion

expenditures: $8.167 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Sanaa

geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Coastline 1,906 km
Constitution 16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Yemen

conventional short form: Yemen

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah

local short form: Al Yaman

former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
Death rate 8.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $6.122 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen A. SECHE

embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa

mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa

telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266

FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahab Abdallah al-HAJRI

chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760

FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Disputes - international Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
Economic aid - recipient $2.3 billion (2003-07 disbursements)
Economy - overview Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, reported average annual growth in the range of 3-4% from 2000 through 2007. Its economic fortunes depend mostly on declining oil resources, but the country is trying to diversify its earnings. In 2006 Yemen began an economic reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. As a result of the program, international donors pledged about $5 billion for development projects. In addition, Yemen has made some progress on reforms over the last year that will likely encourage foreign investment. Oil revenues probably increased in 2007 as a result of higher prices.
Electricity - consumption 3.381 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 4.456 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m
Environment - current issues very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
Exchange rates Yemeni rials per US dollar - 199.14 (2007), 197.18 (2006), 192.67 (2005), 184.78 (2004), 183.45 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 March 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 20 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2%, Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $7.586 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 320,600 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish
Exports - partners China 31.4%, India 17.4%, Thailand 16.7%, South Korea 7%, US 6.7%, UAE 4.1% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 12.4%

industry: 40.9%

services: 46.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.2% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 48 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25.9% (2003)
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $6.592 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 58,100 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners UAE 16.4%, China 12.8%, Saudi Arabia 7.7%, Kuwait 5.8%, Brazil 4.5%, Malaysia 4.2%, US 4% (2006)
Independence 22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.2% (2007 est.)
Industries crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair
Infant mortality rate total: 57.88 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 62.48 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 53.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 10.7% (2007 est.)
International organization participation AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 5,500 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 6.316 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Land boundaries total: 1,746 km

border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Land use arable land: 2.91%

permanent crops: 0.25%

other: 96.84% (2005)
Languages Arabic
Legal system based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (next to be held in April 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 228, Islah 47, YSP 7, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 14
Life expectancy at birth total population: 62.52 years

male: 60.61 years

female: 64.54 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 50.2%

male: 70.5%

female: 30% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 15,474 GRT/18,072 DWT

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1

registered in other countries: 12 (Bolivia 1, Cambodia 3, North Korea 2, Panama 5, St Kitts and Nevis 1) (2007)
Military - note a Coast Guard was established in 2002
Military branches Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Yemen Air Force (includes Air Defense Force) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6.6% (2006)
National holiday Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
Nationality noun: Yemeni(s)

adjective: Yemeni
Natural hazards sandstorms and dust storms in summer
Natural resources petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 71 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,309 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders General People's Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Mohammed Abdullah AL-YADOUMI (acting)]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 22,230,531 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 45.2% (2003)
Population growth rate 3.461% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
Religions Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.035 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.948 male(s)/female

total population: 1.034 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network

domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards

international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti
Telephones - main lines in use 968,400 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 3 (including one Egypt-based station that broadcasts in Yemen); (plus several repeaters) (2007)
Terrain narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Total fertility rate 6.49 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 35% (2003 est.)
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