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Yemen (2003)

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Yemen 2003 year

Administrative divisions 19 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Shabwah, Ta'izz

note: there may be one additional governorate of the capital city of Sanaa
Age structure 0-14 years: 46.8% (male 4,606,110; female 4,446,229)

15-64 years: 50.4% (male 4,972,946; female 4,778,034)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 272,921; female 273,641) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
Airports 44 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 16

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 28

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Area total: 527,970 sq km

land: 527,970 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
Area - comparative slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Background North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.
Birth rate 43.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $3 billion

expenditures: $3.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2001 est.)
Capital Sanaa
Climate mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Coastline 1,906 km
Constitution 16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Yemen

conventional short form: Yemen

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah

local short form: Al Yaman
Currency Yemeni rial (YER)
Death rate 9.04 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $6.2 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Edmund J. HULL

embassy: Dhahar Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa

mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa

telephone: [967] (1) 303-161

FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahhab Abdallah al-HAJRI

chancery: Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760

FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Disputes - international Eritrea protests Yemeni fishing around the Hanish islands awarded to Eritrea by the ICJ in 1999; nomadic groups in border region with Saudi Arabia resist demarcation of boundary
Economic aid - recipient $2.3 billion to be disbursed 2003-07 (2003-07 disbursements)
Economy - overview Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, reported strong growth in the mid-1990s with the onset of oil production, but has been harmed by periodic declines in oil prices. Yemen has embarked on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to modernize and streamline the economy, which has led to substantial foreign debt relief and restructuring. International donors, meeting in Paris in October 2002, agreed on a further $2.3 billion economic support package. Yemen has worked to maintain tight control over spending and implement additional components of the IMF program. A high population growth rate and internal political dissension complicate the government's task.
Electricity - consumption 2.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 3.01 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m
Environment - current issues very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
Exchange rates Yemeni rials per US dollar - NA (2002), 168.67 (2001), 161.72 (2000), 155.72 (1999), 135.88 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Field Marshall Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Qadir BA JAMAL (since 4 April 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a seven-year term (recently extended from a five-year term by constitutional amendment); election last held 23 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 96.3%, Najib Qahtan AL-SHAABI 3.7%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $3.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish
Exports - partners India 21.1%, Thailand 16.9%, South Korea 11.2%, China 11.1%, Malaysia 7.7%, US 6.7%, Singapore 4% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars and of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $15.07 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 22%

industry: 38%

services: 40% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $800 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 48 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
Highways total: 67,000 km

paved: 7,705 km

unpaved: 59,295 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25.9% (1998)
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $2.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners US 10.4%, Saudi Arabia 9.5%, China 8.7%, UAE 6.9%, Russia 5.8%, France 4.7% (2002)
Independence 22 May 1990, Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; previously North Yemen had become independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2002 est.)
Industries crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement
Infant mortality rate total: 65.02 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 69.98 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 59.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12.2% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 4,900 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Land boundaries total: 1,746 km

border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Land use arable land: 2.75%

permanent crops: 0.21%

other: 97.04% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic
Legal system based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch a new constitutional amendment ratified on 20 February 2001 created a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)

elections: last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held NA April 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 46, YSP 8, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Baath Party 2, independents 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 60.97 years

male: 59.16 years

female: 62.87 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 50.2%

male: 70.5%

female: 30% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,623 GRT/23,752 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Hong Kong 2 (2002 est.)
Military - note establishment of a Coast Guard, scheduled for May 2001, has been delayed
Military branches Army (includes Special Forces, established in 1999), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Republican Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $482.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.2% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 4,443,312 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,493,612 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 14 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 249,292 (2003 est.)
National holiday Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
Nationality noun: Yemeni(s)

adjective: Yemeni
Natural hazards sandstorms and dust storms in summer
Natural resources petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 88 km; oil 1,174 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders there are over 12 political parties active in Yemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's Congress or GPC [President Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR]; National Arab Socialist Baath Party [Dr. Qassim SALAAM]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdel Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]

note: President SALIH's General People's Congress or GPC won a landslide victory in the April 1997 legislative election and no longer governs in coalition with Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah - the two parties had been in coalition since the end of the civil war in 1994; the YSP, a loyal opposition party, boycotted the April 1997 legislative election, but announced that it would participate in Yemen's first local elections, held in February 2001; these local elections aim to decentralize political power and are a key element of the government's political reform program
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 19,349,881 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 3.42% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla, As Salif, Ras Issa, Mocha, Nishtun
Radio broadcast stations AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways 0 km
Religions Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network

domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti
Telephones - main lines in use 291,359 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 32,042 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 7 (plus several low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Total fertility rate 6.82 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 30% (1995 est.)
Waterways none
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