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Australia (2008)

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Australia 2008 roku

 Australia
Podzial administracyjny 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Stolica Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 19.3% (male 2,023,375/female 1,929,229)


15-64 years: 67.4% (male 6,945,068/female 6,831,653)


65 years and over: 13.2% (male 1,197,494/female 1,507,357) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry
Lotniska 461 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 317


over 3,047 m: 11


2,438 to 3,047 m: 12


1,524 to 2,437 m: 138


914 to 1,523 m: 143


under 914 m: 13 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 144


1,524 to 2,437 m: 19


914 to 1,523 m: 109


under 914 m: 16 (2007)
Terytorium total: 7,686,850 sq km


land: 7,617,930 sq km


water: 68,920 sq km


note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Tlo historyczne Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration w the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession w the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created w the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia w 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort w Swiat Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due w large part to economic reforms adopted w the 1980s. Long-term concerns include climate-change issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer and more frequest droughts, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 12.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $312 billion


expenditures: $299.6 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Canberra


geographic coordinates: 35 17 S, 149 13 E


time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w pazdziernik; ends last Sunday w marzec


note: Australia is divided into three time zones
Klimat generally arid to semiarid; temperate w south and east; tropical w north
Linia brzegowa 25,760 km
Konstytucja 9 lipiec 1900, effective 1 styczen 1901
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia


conventional short form: Australia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.56 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $757.9 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Zalezne tereny Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera, Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia, Wyspy Kokosowe, Wyspy Morza Koralowego, Wyspy Heard i McDonalda, Wyspa Norfolk, Macquarie Island
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Robert D. McCALLUM, Jr.


embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Stolica Territory 2600


mailing address: APO AP 96549


telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600


FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970


consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis J. RICHARDSON


chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000


FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Timor Wschodni and Australia agreed w 2005 to defer the disputed portion of the boundary dla fifty years and to split hydrocarbon revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Terytorium covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; Timor Wschodni dispute hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary z Indonezja w the Timor Sea; Indonezjan groups challenge Australia's claim to Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera; Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonezjan traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catch; regional states continue to express concern over Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime identification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarktyda (see Antarktyda); w 2004 Australia submitted its claims to UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its continental margins covering over 3.37 million square kilometers or roughly thirty percent of its claimed exclusive economic zone; since 2003, Australian Defense Force leads the Regional Assistance Mission to the Wyspy Salomona (RAMSI) to maintain civil and political order and reinforce regional security
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $894 million (FY99/00)
Ekonomia Australia has an enviable, strong economy z a per capita Produkt krajowy brutto on par z the four dominant West European economies. Robust business and consumer confidence and high export prices dla raw materials and agricultural products are fueling the economy, particularly w mining states. Australia's emphasis on reforms, low inflation, a housing market boom, and growing ties z Chiny have been key factors behind the economy's 16 solid years of expansion. Drought, robust import demand, and a strong currency have pushed the trade deficit up w recent years, while infrastructure bottlenecks and a tight labor market are constraining growth w export volumes and stoking inflation. Australia's budget has been w surplus since 2002 due to strong revenue growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 219.8 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 236.7 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m


highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing dla agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef w the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne white 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%
Kurs waluty Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFERY (since 11 sierpien 2003)


head of government: Prime Minister Kevin RUDD (since 3 grudzien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Julia GILLARD (since 3 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn w by the governor general to serve as government ministers


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn w as prime minister by the governor general
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $139.4 billion (2007 est.)
Eksport 12.9 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 333,200 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Eksport - partnerzy Japonia 19.6%, Chiny 12.3%, South Korea 7.5%, US 6.2%, Indie 5.5%, NZ 5.5%, UK 5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi blue z the flag of the UK w the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star w the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia w 1901; the star depicts one point dla each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation w white z one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3.7%


industry: 25.6%


services: 70.7% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 27 00 S, 133 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most consistent winds w the world
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)
Narkotyki Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $152.7 billion (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 611,400 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
Import - partnerzy Chiny 14.4%, US 14.1%, Japonia 9.6%, Singapur 6%, Niemcy 5.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.57 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 4.95 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 4.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Paris Club, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 25,450 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
Sila robocza 10.9 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 3.6%


industry: 21.2%


services: 75.2% (2004 est.)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of cultivated grassland)


permanent crops: 0.04%


other: 93.81% (2005)
Jezyki English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified 5.8% (2001 Census)
System prawny based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular preferential vote to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)


elections: Senate - last held 24 listopad 2007 (next to be held no later than 2010); House of Representatives - last held 24 listopad 2007 (next to be called no later than 2010)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 37, Australian Labor Party 32, Australian Greens 5, Family First Party 1, other 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Australian Labor Party 83, Liberal Party 55, National Party 10, independents 2
Zywotnosc total population: 80.62 years


male: 77.75 years


female: 83.63 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99%


male: 99%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Oceania, continent between the Ocean Indyjski and the South Ocean Spokojny
Lokalizacja na mapie Oceania
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 52 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,322,527 GRT/1,501,865 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 5


foreign-owned: 16 (Kanada 2, Francja 1, Niemcy 2, Holandia 2, Norwegia 1, Filipiny 1, UK 2, US 5)


registered w other countries: 29 (Antigua i Barbuda 1, Bahamas 3, Bermudy 4, Fidzi 1, The Gambia 1, Liberia 2, Wyspy Marshalla 1, Panama 4, Singapur 6, Tonga 1, UK 1, US 2, Vanuatu 2, unknown 1) (2007)
Wojsko Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.4% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Australia Day, 26 styczen (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and Nowa Zelandia Army Corps during Swiat War I at Gallipoli, Turcja), 25 kwiecien (1915)
Narodowosc noun: Australian(s)


adjective: Australian
Naturalne zagrozenia cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Surowce naturalne bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Wspolczynnik migracji 3.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate/gas 469 km; gas 26,719 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 3,720 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [Brendan NELSON]; The Nationals [Warren TRUSS]
Ludnosc 20,434,176 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.824% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 38,550 km


broad gauge: 3,727 km 1.600-m gauge


standard gauge: 20,519 km 1.435-m gauge (1,877 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 14,074 km 1.067-m gauge (2,453 km electrified)


dual gauge: 230 km dual gauge (2006)
Religie Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, other Christian 20.5%, Buddhist 1.9%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 12.7%, none 15.3% (2001 Census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.049 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.794 male(s)/female


total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: excellent domestic and international service


domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone w areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones


international: country code - 61; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable z links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to Nowa Zelandia and the Stany Zjednoczone; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Ocean Indyjski and 6 Ocean Spokojny, 2 Inmarsat - Indien and Ocean Spokojny regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 9.94 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 19.76 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 104 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly low plateau z deserts; fertile plain w southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.76 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4.4% (listopad 2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,000 km (mainly used dla recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling river systems) (2006)
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