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Nepal (2008)

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Nepal 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 38.3% (male 5,721,720/female 5,360,391)

15-64 years: 57.9% (male 8,597,037/female 8,134,115)

65 years and over: 3.8% (male 528,113/female 560,414) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
Lotniska 47 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 10

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 30 (2007)
Terytorium total: 147,181 sq km

land: 143,181 sq km

water: 4,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Arkansas
Tlo historyczne In 1951, the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms w 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. A Maoist insurgency, launched w 1996, gained traction and threatened to bring down the regime, especially after a negotiated cease-fire between the Maoists and government forces broke down w sierpien 2003. In 2001, the crown prince massacred ten members of the royal family, including the king and queen, and then took his own life. In pazdziernik 2002, the new king dismissed the prime minister and his cabinet dla "incompetence" after they dissolved the parliament and were subsequently unable to hold elections because of the ongoing insurgency. While stopping short of reestablishing parliament, the king w czerwiec 2004 reinstated the most recently elected prime minister who formed a four-party coalition government. Citing dissatisfaction z the government's lack of progress w addressing the Maoist insurgency and corruption, the king w luty 2005 dissolved the government, declared a state of emergency, imprisoned party leaders, and assumed power. The king's government subsequently released party leaders and officially ended the state of emergency w maj 2005, but the monarch retained absolute power until kwiecien 2006. After nearly three weeks of mass protests organized by the seven-party opposition and the Maoists, the king allowed parliament to reconvene w kwiecien 2006. Following a listopad 2006 peace accord between the government and the Maoists, an interim constitution was promulgated and the Maoists were allowed to enter parliament w styczen 2007. The peace accord calls dla the creation of a Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly elections, already twice delayed, are set dla kwiecien 2008.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 30.46 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.153 billion

expenditures: $1.927 billion (FY06/07)
Stolica name: Kathmandu

geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E

time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies from cool summers and severe winters w north to subtropical summers and mild winters w south
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 9 listopad 1990; note - a new interim constitution was promulgated w styczen 2007; the listopad 2006 peace agreement calls dla the election of a constituent assembly to draft a new permanent constitution
Nazwa panstwa conventional long and short form: Nepal

local long and short form: Nepal
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.14 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.07 billion (marzec 2006)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL

embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [977] (1) 400-7200

FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Suresh Chandra CHALISE

chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534

consulate(s) general:

New York:
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary z Indie, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities; approximately 106,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined w refugee camps w southeastern Nepal since 1990
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $427.9 million (2005)
Ekonomia Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries w the world z almost one-third of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood dla three-fourths of the population and accounting dla 38% of Produkt krajowy brutto. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Security concerns relating to the Maoist conflict have led to a decrease w tourism, a key source of foreign exchange. Nepal has considerable scope dla exploiting its potential w hydropower and tourism, areas of recent foreign investment interest. Prospects dla foreign trade or investment w other sectors will remain poor, however, because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, its landlocked geographic location, its civil strife, and its susceptibility to natural disaster.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.96 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 101 million kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 266 million kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.511 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m

highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (overuse of wood dla fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Chhettri 15.5%, Brahman-Hill 12.5%, Magar 7%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.5%, Newar 5.4%, Muslim 4.2%, Kami 3.9%, Yadav 3.9%, other 32.7%, unspecified 2.8% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty Nepalese rupees per US dollar - NA (2007), 72.446 (2006), 72.16 (2005), 73.674 (2004), 76.141 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 30 kwiecien 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Girija Prasad KOIRALA (since 30 kwiecien 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet historically appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; note - the prime minister selected the Cabinet w maj 2006 w consultation z the political parties

elections: following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition historically has been appointed prime minister by the monarch
Eksport 101 million kWh (2006)
Eksport $830 million f.o.b.; note - does not include unrecorded border trade z Indie (2006)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
Eksport - partnerzy Indie 67.9%, US 11.7%, Niemcy 4.7% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 16 lipiec - 15 lipiec
Opis flagi red z a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 38%

industry: 20%

services: 42% (FY05/06 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 28 00 N, 84 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Indie; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders z Chiny and Indie respectively
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 40.6% (2004)
Narkotyki illicit producer of cannabis and hashish dla the domestic and international drug markets; transit point dla opiates from Southeast Asia to the West
Import 266 million kWh (2006)
Import $2.398 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 11,530 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer
Import - partnerzy Indie 61.8%, Chiny 3.8%, Indonezja 3.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.2% (FY05/06)
Przemysl tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 63.66 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 61.87 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 65.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.6% (listopad 2006 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 11,700 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat (chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Konstytucjaal Council; the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)
Sila robocza 11.11 million

note: severe lack of skilled labor (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 76%

industry: 6%

services: 18% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 2,926 km

border countries: Chiny 1,236 km, Indie 1,690 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.07%

permanent crops: 0.85%

other: 83.08% (2005)
Jezyki Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)

note: many w government and business also speak English (2001 est.)
System prawny based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza a 330 seat Interim Parliament was formed on 15 styczen 2007 following the promulgation of an interim constitution

elections: Constituent Assembly elections orginally scheduled dla czerwiec 2007 are expected to be held on 10 kwiecien 2008

election results: Interim Parliament seats by party - NC 85, CPN/M 83, CPN/UML 83, NC/D 48, RPP 9, NSP/AD 5, NWPP 4, People's Front Nepal (Amik Sherchan Group) 4, People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur K.C. Group) 3, UFL 3, People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur Ale Group) 2, NSP 1
Zywotnosc total population: 60.56 years

male: 60.78 years

female: 60.33 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 48.6%

male: 62.7%

female: 34.9% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, between Chiny and Indie
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Nepalese Army, Armed Police Force (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.6% (2006)
Swieto narodowe in 2006, Parliament abolished the birthday of King GYANENDRA (7 lipiec) and Konstytucja Day (9 listopad) as national holidays
Narodowosc noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Nepalese
Naturalne zagrozenia severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Surowce naturalne quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav Kumar NEPAL]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Pashupati Shumsher RANA] (also called Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP); Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party or NSP - Mandal [Bhadri Prasad MANDAL]; Nepal Sadbhavana Party - Ananda Devi [Ananda DEVI]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]; People's Front Nepal (Amik Sherchan Group); People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur Ale Group); People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur K.C. Group); Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA] (split from RPP w marzec 2005); Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal (merged z People's Front Nepal or PFN w 2002); United Leftist Front or UFL [C.P. MAINALI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA, chairman; Dr. Baburam BHATTARAI]; numerous small, left-leaning student groups w the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
Ludnosc 28,901,790 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 30.9% (2004)
Przyrost naturalny 2.132% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2000)
Linie kolejowe total: 59 km

narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2006)
Religie Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

note: only official Hindu state w the world
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.067 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.942 male(s)/female

total population: 1.056 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile cellular telephone network

domestic: NA

international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to Indie; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 595,800 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.042 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (plus 9 repeaters) (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges w south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.01 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 42% (2004 est.)
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