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Albania (2008)

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Albania 2008 roku

 Albania
Podzial administracyjny 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24.1% (male 454,622/female 413,698)


15-64 years: 66.6% (male 1,228,497/female 1,170,489)


65 years and over: 9.3% (male 154,352/female 178,865) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Lotniska 11 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 8


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Terytorium total: 28,748 sq km


land: 27,398 sq km


water: 1,350 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Maryland
Tlo historyczne Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire w 1912, but was conquered by Wlochy w 1939. Communist partizans took over the country w 1944. Albania allied itself first z the USSR (until 1960), and then z Chiny (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal z high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress w its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections w 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes w 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition of power, was considered an important step forward. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest w Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role w managing inter-ethnic tensions w southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU. Albania, z troops w Irak and Afganistan, has been a strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 15.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $2.752 billion


expenditures: $3.129 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Tirana (Tirane)


geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Linia brzegowa 362 km
Konstytucja adopted by popular referendum on 22 listopad 1998; promulgated 28 listopad 1998
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Albania


conventional short form: Albania


local long form: Republika e Shqiperise


local short form: Shqiperia


former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.33 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.55 billion (2004)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. John L. WITHERS, II


embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana


mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510


telephone: [355] (4) 247285


FAX: [355] (4) 232222
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA


chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942


FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the Albanian Government calls dla the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians w neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups w neighboring countries advocate dla a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem dla developed countries, chiefly Grecja and Wlochy
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA: $318.7 million


note: top donors were Wlochy, EU, Niemcy (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and recently adopted a fiscal reform package aimed at reducing the large gray economy and attracting foreign investment. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing w Grecja and Wlochy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts dla more than one-fifth of Produkt krajowy brutto, is held back because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment, which make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The completion of a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved transmission line between Albania and Czarnogora will help relieve the energy shortages. Also, the government is moving slowly to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. On the positive side, macroeconomic growth was strong w 2003-07 and inflation is low and stable.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.323 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 300 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 371 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 5.385 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m


highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)


note: w 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Kurs waluty leke per US dollar - 92.668 (2007), 98.384 (2006), 102.649 (2005), 102.78 (2004), 121.863 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 lipiec 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 wrzesien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament


elections: president elected by the People's Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); four election rounds held between 8 and 20 lipiec 2007 (next election to be held w 2012); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: Bamir TOPI elected president; People's Assembly vote, fourth round (three-fifths majority (84 votes) required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes, Neritan CEKA 5 votes
Eksport 300 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $962 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1,240 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Eksport - partnerzy Wlochy 67.7%, Federalna Republika Jugoslawii 5.8%, Grecja 5.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a black two-headed eagle w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 21.7%


industry: 20.3%


services: 58% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 41 00 N, 20 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.4%


highest 10%: 24.4% (2004)
Narkotyki increasingly active transshipment point dla Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined dla Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding w Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated z regional trafficking w narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens
Import 371 million kWh (2005)
Import $3.42 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 21,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Wlochy 32%, Grecja 17.7%, Turcja 8.1%, Niemcy 5.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 28 listopad 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 20.02 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 20.46 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 19.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 3,530 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly dla a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
Sila robocza 1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (wrzesien 2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 58%


industry: 15%


services: 27% (wrzesien 2006 est.)
Granica total: 720 km


border countries: Grecja 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Czarnogora 172 km, Serbia 115 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 20.1%


permanent crops: 4.21%


other: 75.69% (2005)
Jezyki Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
System prawny has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court dla its citizens
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; 100 members are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 3 lipiec 2005 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19
Zywotnosc total population: 77.6 years


male: 74.95 years


female: 80.53 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 9 and over can read and write


total population: 98.7%


male: 99.2%


female: 98.3% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Grecja w the south and Czarnogora and Serbia to the north
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 56,550 GRT/85,521 DWT


by type: cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 1 (Turcja 1)


registered w other countries: 3 (Georgia 2, Panama 1) (2007)
Wojsko Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Defense Command, General Staff Headquarters (includes Logistics Command, Training and Doctrine Command) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.49% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 listopad (1912)
Narodowosc noun: Albanian(s)


adjective: Albanian
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -4.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or AD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIA]; Liberal Union Party or BLD [Arjan STAROVA]; Movement dla National Development or LZhK [Dashamir SHEHI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party of Albania or PDSSh [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement dla Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union dla Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front dla Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Ludnosc 3,600,523 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.529% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 13, FM 46, shortwave 1 (2005)
Linie kolejowe total: 447 km


standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%


note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed w 1967 and religious observances prohibited; w listopad 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.099 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.863 male(s)/female


total population: 1.042 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: despite new investment w fixed lines, the density of main lines remains low z roughly 10 lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density is approximately 60 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors; Internet broadband services initiated w 2005; internet cafes are popular w Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital


international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Wlochy, Chorwacja, and Grecja; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turcja; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Wlochy and Grecja (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 353,600 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 1.53 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 65 (3 national, 62 local); 2 cable networks (2005)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.03 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 13% official rate, but may exceed 30% due to preponderance of near-subsistence farming (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 43 km (2007)
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