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Pakistan (2008)

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Pakistan 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Terytoriums*, Islamabad Stolica Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh

note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 36.9% (male 31,264,576/female 29,507,174)

15-64 years: 58.8% (male 49,592,033/female 47,327,161)

65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,342,650/female 3,708,330) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Lotniska 146 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 92

over 3,047 m: 16

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 29

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 54

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 24 (2007)
Terytorium total: 803,940 sq km

land: 778,720 sq km

water: 25,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of California
Tlo historyczne The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest w the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused z the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions w subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal (Mongol) Empire flourished w the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region w the 18th century. The separation w 1947 of British Indie into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu Indie was never satisfactorily resolved, and Indie and Pakistan fought two wars - w 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries w 1971 - w which Indie capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis w Pakistani politics - resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. In response to Indien nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests w 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 27.52 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $23.17 billion

expenditures: $29.74 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Islamabad

geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat mostly hot, dry desert; temperate w northwest; arctic w north
Linia brzegowa 1,046 km
Konstytucja 12 kwiecien 1973; suspended 5 lipiec 1977, restored z amendments 30 grudzien 1985; suspended 15 pazdziernik 1999, restored w stages w 2002; amended 31 grudzien 2003; suspended 3 listopad 2007; restored z amendments on 15 grudzien 2007
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form: Pakistan

local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan

local short form: Pakistan

former: West Pakistan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $40.32 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON

embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200

telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000

FAX: [92] (51) 2276427

consulate(s) general: Karachi

consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmud Ali DURRANI

chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500

FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; Indie and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire w Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off w the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests Indie's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, Indie and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch w the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim w Indie's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, z UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afganistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border z Afganistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.666 billion (2005)
Ekonomia Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation z neighboring Indie. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last five years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, most notably privatizing the banking sector. Poverty levels have decreased by 10% since 2001, and Islamabad has steadily raised development spending w recent years, including a 52% real increase w the budget allocation dla development w FY07, a necessary step toward reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. The fiscal deficit - the result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending, including reconstruction costs from the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake - appears manageable dla now. Produkt krajowy brutto growth, spurred by gains w the industrial and service sectors, remained w the 6-8% range w 2004-07. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% w 2005 before easing to 6.9% w 2007. The central bank is pursuing tighter monetary policy while trying to preserve growth. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit - driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion - could draw down reserves and dampen Produkt krajowy brutto growth w the medium term.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 67.06 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 89.82 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from Indie at the time of partition and their descendants)
Kurs waluty Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 czerwiec 2001)

note: following an pazdziernik 1999 military coup, General Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; w maj 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court validated the 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority dla three years following the coup; w czerwiec 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself president, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; an kwiecien 2002 referendum extended MUSHARRAF's presidency by five years

head of government: caretaker Prime Minister Mohammedmian SOOMRO (since 16 listopad 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections: the president is elected by secret ballot (1,170 votes total) through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies dla a five-year term; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly

election results: MUSHARRAF reelected on 6 pazdziernik 2007 (next election to be held w pazdziernik 2012); MUSHARRAF 671 votes; Wajihuddin AHMED 8 votes; 6 votes invalid
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $20.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 23,230 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Eksport - partnerzy US 21%, UAE 9%, Afganistan 7.7%, Chiny 5.3%, UK 5.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi green z a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered w the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 19.6%

industry: 26.8%

services: 53.7% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indien Subcontinent
Ladowiska helikopterow 18 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 26.3% (2002)
Narkotyki opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 800 hectares w 2005 yielding a potential production of 4 metric tons of pure heroin; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that force eradication - fines and arrests will take place if the ban on poppy cultivation is not observed; key transit point dla Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound dla Western markets, the Gulf States, and Africa; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $30.99 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 278,900 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Import - partnerzy Chiny 13.8%, Arabia Saudyjska 10.5%, UAE 9.7%, US 6.5%, Japonia 5.7%, Kuwejt 4.7%, Niemcy 4.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 14 sierpien 1947 (from British Indie)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.8% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 68.84 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 68.94 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 68.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.9% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 182,300 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Sila robocza 49.18 million

note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 42%

industry: 20%

services: 38% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 6,774 km

border countries: Afganistan 2,430 km, Chiny 523 km, Indie 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 24.44%

permanent crops: 0.84%

other: 74.72% (2005)
Jezyki Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski and other 8%
System prawny based on English common law z provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives w the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved dla women; 10 seats reserved dla non-Muslims; to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held w marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2009); National Assembly - last held 18 luty 2008 (next to be held w 2013)

election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 39, MMA 18, PPPP 9, MQM 6, PML/N 4, PkMAP 3, PPP/S 3, ANP 2, BNP/A 1, BNP/M 1, JWP 1, PML/F 1, independents 12; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 63.75 years

male: 62.73 years

female: 64.83 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 49.9%

male: 63%

female: 36% (2005 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between Indie on the east and Iran and Afganistan on the west and Chiny w the north
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 14 ships (1000 GRT or over) 325,254 GRT/536,876 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, petroleum tanker 3

registered w other countries: 12 (Komory 2, Hong Kong 1, North Korea 1, Malta 2, Panama 5, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Wojsko Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.2% (2006; 3% 2007 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 23 marzec (1956)
Narodowosc noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially w north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (lipiec and sierpien)
Surowce naturalne land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 10,398 km; oil 2,076 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged z PML); Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of maj 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan People's Party or PPP/S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDANI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]

note: political alliances w Pakistan can shift frequently
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Ludnosc 164,741,924 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 24% (FY05/06 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.828% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 8,163 km

broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.048 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.901 male(s)/female

total population: 1.045 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats dla women and non-Muslims
System telefoniczny general assessment: the telecom infrastructure is improving dramatically z foreign and domestic investments into fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 63 million w mid-2007, up from only about 300,000 w 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid w network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks

international: country code - 92; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2006)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 5.24 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 63.16 million (2007)
Stacje telewizyjne 20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat Indus plain w east; mountains w north and northwest; Balochistan plateau w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.71 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.5% plus substantial underemployment (2007 est.)
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