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Pakistan (2006)

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Pakistan 2006 roku

 Pakistan
Podzial administracyjny 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Terytoriums*, Islamabad Stolica Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh


note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 39% (male 33,293,428/female 31,434,314)


15-64 years: 56.9% (male 48,214,298/female 46,062,933)


65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,256,065/female 3,542,522) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Lotniska 139 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 91


over 3,047 m: 14


2,438 to 3,047 m: 21


1,524 to 2,437 m: 33


914 to 1,523 m: 15


under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 48


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 12


914 to 1,523 m: 12


under 914 m: 23 (2006)
Terytorium total: 803,940 sq km


land: 778,720 sq km


water: 25,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of California
Tlo historyczne The separation w 1947 of British Indie into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu Indie was never satisfactorily resolved, and Indie and Pakistan fought two wars - w 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries w 1971 - w which Indie capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis w Pakistani politics - resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. In response to Indien nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests w 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 29.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $15.45 billion


expenditures: $20.07 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Stolica name: Islamabad


geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E


time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat mostly hot, dry desert; temperate w northwest; arctic w north
Linia brzegowa 1,046 km
Konstytucja 12 kwiecien 1973; suspended 5 lipiec 1977, restored z amendments 30 grudzien 1985; suspended 15 pazdziernik 1999, restored w stages w 2002; amended 31 grudzien 2003
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan


conventional short form: Pakistan


local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan


local short form: Pakistan


former: West Pakistan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $38.8 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan CROCKER


embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad


mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200


telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000


FAX: [92] (51) 2276427


consulate(s) general: Karachi


consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmud Ali DURRANI


chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500


FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; w 2004, Indie and Pakistan instituted a cease-fire w the Kashmir, and w 2005 restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact of Indie's building the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir to the Swiat Bank dla arbitration and w general the two states still dispute Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare discussions on a maritime boundary, w 2004, Indie and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed the Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim w Indie's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, z UN assistance, had repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees and had undertaken a census to count the remaining million or more, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border z Afganistan and stem organized terrorist or other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings z Afghan and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.4 billion (FY01/02)
Ekonomia Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation z neighboring Indie. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last four years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, although progress on more politically sensitive reforms has slowed. For example, w the budget dla fiscal year 2006, Islamabad did not impose taxes on the agriculture or real estate sectors, despite Pakistan's chronically low tax-to-Produkt krajowy brutto ratio. While long-term prospects remain uncertain, given Pakistan's low level of development, medium-term prospects dla job creation and poverty reduction are the best w more than a decade. Islamabad has raised development spending from about 2% of Produkt krajowy brutto w the 1990s to 4% w 2003, a necessary step towards reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. Produkt krajowy brutto growth, spurred by double-digit gains w industrial production over the past year, has become less dependent on agriculture, and remained above 7% w 2004 and 2005. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% w 2005. The Swiat Bank and Asian Development Bank announced that they would provide US $1 billion each w aid to help Pakistan rebuild areas hit by the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w Kashmir. Foreign exchange reserves continued to reach new levels w 2005, supported by steady worker remittances. In the near term, growth probably cannot be sustained at the 7% level; however, massive international aid, increased government spending, lower taxes, and pay increases dla government workers will help Pakistan maintain strong Produkt krajowy brutto growth over the longer term.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 71.54 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 76.92 billion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from Indie at the time of partition and their descendants)
Kurs waluty Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003), 59.724 (2002), 61.927 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza note: following a military takeover on 12 pazdziernik 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 maj 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the pazdziernik 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority dla three years from the coup date; on 20 czerwiec 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; w a referendum held on 30 kwiecien 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 styczen 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence w the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies


chief of state: President General Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 czerwiec 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 sierpien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: the president is elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; note - w a referendum held on 30 kwiecien 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years (next to be held w 2007); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly (next to be held w 2007)


election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 sierpien 2004 z 191 of the votes
Eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Eksport $14.85 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA bbl/day
Eksport - towary textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Eksport - partnerzy US 22.5%, UAE 8.9%, UK 5.8%, Chiny 5.4%, Niemcy 4.6% (2005)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi green z a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered w the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 21.6%


industry: 25.1%


services: 53.3% (2005 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.6% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indien Subcontinent
Ladowiska helikopterow 18 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 4.1%


highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97)
Narkotyki opium poppy cultivation declined 58% to 3,147 hectares w 2005; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that force eradication - fines and arrests will take place if the ban on poppy cultivation is not observed; key transit point dla Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound dla Western markets, the Gulf States, and Africa; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems
Import 0 kWh (2003)
Import $21.26 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA bbl/day
Import - towary petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Import - partnerzy Chiny 13.8%, Arabia Saudyjska 10.3%, UAE 8.8%, Japonia 6.1%, US 5%, Kuwejt 5%, Niemcy 4.8% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 14 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 10.7% (2005 est.)
Przemysl textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 70.45 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 70.84 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 70.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 9.1% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ARF, AsDB, C (reinstated 2004), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 182,300 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Sila robocza 46.84 million


note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2005 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 42%


industry: 20%


services: 38% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 6,774 km


border countries: Afganistan 2,430 km, Chiny 523 km, Indie 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 24.44%


permanent crops: 0.84%


other: 74.72% (2005)
Jezyki Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
System prawny based on English common law z provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats - formerly 87; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms and the National Assembly (342 seats - formerly 217; 60 seats represent women; 10 seats represent minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held w marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2009); National Assembly - last held 10 pazdziernik 2002 (next to be held w 2007)


election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 47, PPPP 9, MMA 20, MQM/A 6, PML/N 4, PML/F 1, PkMAP 3, ANP 2, PPP 3, JWP 1, BNP-Awami 1, BNP-Mengal 1, BNP/H 1, independents 1; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM/A 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, PAT 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, MQM/H 1, PkMAP 1, independents 3
Zywotnosc total population: 63.39 years


male: 62.4 years


female: 64.44 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 48.7%


male: 61.7%


female: 35.2% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between Indie on the east and Iran and Afganistan on the west and Chiny w the north
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 16 ships (1000 GRT or over) 397,740 GRT/657,656 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, container 1, petroleum tanker 4


registered w other countries: 11 (Komory 2, North Korea 3, Malta 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny 1) (2006)
Wojsko Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2006)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $4.26 billion (2005 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.9% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 23 marzec (1956)
Narodowosc noun: Pakistani(s)


adjective: Pakistani
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially w north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (lipiec and sierpien)
Surowce naturalne land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi gas 10,257 km; oil 2,001 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muttahida Quami Movement, Haqiqi faction or MQM/H [Afaq AHMAD]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed Afzal KHAN]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of maj 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]


note: political alliances w Pakistan can shift frequently
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Ludnosc 165,803,560 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 32% (FY00/01 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.09% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 8,163 km


broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Religie Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female


total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats dla women and non-Muslims
System telefoniczny general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate dla government and business use, w part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment w the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements w trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population


domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks


international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 5,277,500 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 12.771 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat Indus plain w east; mountains w north and northwest; Balochistan plateau w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 6.6% plus substantial underemployment (2005 est.)
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