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Pakistan (2001)

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Pakistan 2001 year

Administrative divisions 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh

the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Age structure 0-14 years:
40.47% (male 30,131,400; female 28,391,891)

15-64 years:
55.42% (male 40,977,543; female 39,164,663)

65 years and over:
4.11% (male 2,918,872; female 3,032,270) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Airports 117 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
17 (2000 est.)
Area total:
803,940 sq km

778,720 sq km

25,220 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of California
Background The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998.
Birth rate 31.21 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$8.9 billion

$11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Capital Islamabad
Climate mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Coastline 1,046 km
Constitution 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999
Country name conventional long form:
Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form:

West Pakistan
Currency Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Death rate 9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $38 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador William B. MILAM

Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address:
P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200

[92] (51) 2080-0000

[92] (51) 2276427

consulate(s) general:

Lahore, Peshawar
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Maleeha LODHI

2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 939-6200

[1] (202) 387-0484

consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles and New York
Disputes - international status of Kashmir with India; water-sharing problems with India over the Indus River (Wular Barrage)
Economic aid - recipient $2 billion (FY99/00)
Economy - overview Pakistan is a poor, heavily populated country, suffering from internal political disputes, lack of foreign investment, and a costly confrontation with neighboring India. Pakistan's economic outlook continues to be marred by its weak foreign exchange position, which relies on international creditors for hard currency inflows. The MUSHARRAF government will face an estimated $21 billion in foreign debt coming due in 2000-03, despite having rescheduled nearly $2 billion in debt with Paris Club members. Foreign loans and grants provide approximately 25% of government revenue, but debt service obligations total nearly 50% of government expenditure. Although Pakistan successfully negotiated a $600 million IMF Stand-By Arrangement, future loan installments will be jeopardized if Pakistan misses critical IMF benchmarks on revenue collection and the fiscal deficit. MUSHARRAF has complied largely with IMF recommendations to raise petroleum prices, widen the tax net, privatize public sector assets, and improve the balance of trade. However, Pakistan's economic prospects remain uncertain; too little has changed despite the new administration's intentions. Foreign exchange reserves hover at roughly $1 billion, GDP growth hinges on crop performance, the import bill has been hammered by high oil prices, and both foreign and domestic investors remain wary of committing to projects in Pakistan.
Electricity - consumption 57.732 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 62.078 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:
K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Exchange rates Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 59.152 (January 2001), 52.814 (2000), 49.118 (1999), 44.943 (1998), 40.918 (1997), 35.909 (1996)
Executive branch note:
following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; exercising the powers of the head of the government, he appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as Pakistan's supreme governing body; President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR remains the ceremonial chief of state; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date

chief of state:
President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR (since 31 December 1997)

head of government:
Chief Executive Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 October 1999)

Cabinet appointed by the chief executive

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 31 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the National Assembly; election last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA); note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF overthrew the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF in the military takeover of 12 October 1999; in May 2000, the Supreme Court validated the October 1999 coup and set a three-year limit in office for Chief Executive MUSHARRAF

election results:
Rafiq TARAR elected president; percent of Parliament and provincial vote - NA%; results are for the last election for prime minister prior to the military takeover of 12 October 1999 - Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $8.6 billion (f.o.b., FY99/00)
Exports - commodities textiles (garments, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, other agricultural products
Exports - partners US 24%, Hong Kong 7%, UK 7%, Germany 6%, UAE 6% (FY99/00)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $282 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


49.7% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Geography - note controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Heliports 8 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
247,811 km

141,252 km (including 339 km of expressways)

106,559 km (1998)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
27.7% (1996)
Illicit drugs key transit area for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western markets; narcotics still move from Afghanistan into Balochistan Province
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $9.6 billion (f.o.b., FY99/00)
Imports - commodities machinery, petroleum, petroleum products, chemicals, transportation equipment, edible oils, grains, pulses, flour
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 8%, UAE 8%, US 6%, Japan 6%, Malaysia 4% (FY99/00)
Independence 14 August 1947 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (1999 est.)
Industries textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp
Infant mortality rate 80.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.2% (2000 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 30 (2000)
Irrigated land 171,100 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Labor force 40 million

extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 44%, industry 17%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
6,774 km

border countries:
Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

61% (1993 est.)
Languages Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Legal system based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dissolved Parliament following the military takeover of 12 October 1999; bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (87 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for election every two years) and the National Assembly (217 seats - 10 represent non-Muslims; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Senate - last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held NA); National Assembly - last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA); note - no timetable has yet been given for elections following the military takeover

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J 2, BNM/M 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/N 137, PPP 18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP 2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1, independents 21, minorities 10; note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dismissed Parliament 15 October 1999
Life expectancy at birth total population:
61.45 years

60.61 years

62.32 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


29% (1998)
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Map references Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 240,605 GRT/367,040 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 13, container 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2.435 billion (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.9% (FY99/00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
35,770,928 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
21,897,366 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
1,657,723 (2001 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Natural resources land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Net migration rate -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)
Political parties and leaders note:
Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dissolved Parliament following the military takeover of 12 October 1999, however, political parties have been allowed to operate; Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. HAYEE Baluch]; Baluch National Party or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI [Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI]; Millat Party [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli Yakjheti Council or MYC is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ], Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO [Shah Ahmad NOORANI]; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed AFZAL Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]

political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Population 144,616,639 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 40% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.11% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Radio broadcast stations AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Radios 13.5 million (1997)
Railways total:
8,163 km

broad gauge:
7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified; 1,037 km double track)

narrow gauge:
445 km 1.000-m gauge (1996 est.) (2000)
Religions Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.96 male(s)/female

total population:
1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims
Telephone system general assessment:
the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population

microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks

satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.861 million (March 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 158,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Total fertility rate 4.41 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 6% (FY99/00 est.)
Waterways none
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