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Pakistan (2004)

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Pakistan 2004 year

Administrative divisions 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh

note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Age structure 0-14 years: 40.2% (male 32,919,441; female 31,058,929)

15-64 years: 55.8% (male 45,381,469; female 43,377,613)

65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,123,594; female 3,335,290) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Airports 129 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 92

over 3,047 m: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 22

1,524 to 2,437 m: 32

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 39

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 21 (2004 est.)
Area total: 803,940 sq km

land: 778,720 sq km

water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of California
Background The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan have fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but recent discussions and confidence-building measures may be a start toward lessened tensions.
Birth rate 31.22 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $12.08 billion

expenditures: $15.41 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Islamabad
Climate mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Coastline 1,046 km
Constitution 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored 31 December 2002
Country name conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form: Pakistan

former: West Pakistan
Currency Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Death rate 8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $33.54 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan CROCKER

embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200

telephone: [92] (51) 2080-0000

FAX: [92] (51) 2276427

consulate(s): Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jehangir KARAMAT

chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 243-3277

FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and Boston (Honarary)
Disputes - international Kashmir remains the world's largest and most highly militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, and Northern Areas), but recent discussions and confidence-building measures among the parties are beginning to defuse tensions; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to China in 1965 boundary agreement; disputes with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Sir Creek Estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation, 2-3 million Afghan refugees continue to reside in Pakistan, many at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border with Afghanistan to stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings with Afghan and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
Economic aid - recipient $2.4 billion (FY01/02)
Economy - overview Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since late 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last two years. The government has made substantial inroads in macroeconomic reform since 2000, although progress on more politically sensitive reforms has slowed. For example, in the third and final year of its $1.3 billion IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Islamabad has continued to require waivers for energy sector reforms. While long-term prospects remain uncertain, given Pakistan's low level of development, medium-term prospects for job creation and poverty reduction are the best in nearly a decade. Islamabad has raised development spending from about 2% of GDP in the 1990s to 4% in 2003, a necessary step towards reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. GDP growth is heavily dependent on rain-fed crops, and last year's end to a four-year drought should support moderate agricultural growth for the next few years. Foreign exchange reserves continued to reach new levels in 2003, supported by robust export growth and steady worker remittances.
Electricity - consumption 62.27 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 66.96 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Exchange rates Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 57.752 (2003), 59.7238 (2002), 61.9272 (2001), 53.6482 (2000), 49.1183 (1999)
Executive branch note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 January 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies

chief of state: President General Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 August 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the Prime Minister

elections: the president is elected by Parliament for a five-year term; note - in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years (next to be held NA 2007); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (next to be held NA 2007)

election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 August 2004 with 191 of the votes
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $11.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m NA (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners US 23.1%, UAE 9.4%, UK 7.1%, Germany 5.1%, Hong Kong 4.6% (2003)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $318 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 23.3%

industry: 23.5%

services: 53.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Geography - note controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Heliports 15 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 254,410 km

paved: 109,396 km (including 339 km of expressways)

unpaved: 145,014 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.1%

highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97)
Illicit drugs opium poppy in Federally Administered Tribal Areas, North-West Frontier Province, and Balochistan Province has rebounded since it was nearly eliminated in 2001; key transit point for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Western markets, the Gulf States, and Africa; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $12.51 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners UAE 11.2%, Saudi Arabia 10.9%, China 7.3%, Japan 6.6%, Kuwait 6.4%, US 6%, Malaysia 4.6%, Germany 4.4%, Singapore 4% (2003)
Independence 14 August 1947 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7.6% (2003 est.)
Industries textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Infant mortality rate total: 74.43 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 74.84 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 74 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.9% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 180,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Labor force 43.98 million

note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 44%, industry 17%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 6,774 km

border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Land use arable land: 27.87%

permanent crops: 0.87%

other: 71.26% (2001)
Languages Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Legal system based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats - formerly 87; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve four-year terms; and the National Assembly (342 seats - formerly 217; 60 seats represent women; 10 seats represent minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 24 and 27 February 2003 (next to be held by February 2007); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2006)

election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 40, PPPP 11, MMA 21, MQM/A 6, PML/N 4, NA 3, PML/F 1, PkMAP 2, ANP 2, PPP/S 2, JWP 1, BNP-Awami 1, BNP-Mengal 1, BNM/H 1, independents 4; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM/A 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, PAT 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, MQM/H 1, PkMAP 1, independents 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 62.61 years

male: 61.69 years

female: 63.58 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 45.7%

male: 59.8%

female: 30.6% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Map references Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 329,486 GRT/512,506 DWT

by type: cargo 11, container 2, petroleum tanker 4

registered in other countries: 16 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2.7 billion (FY02/03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.9% (FY02/03)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 39,793,586 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 24,355,985 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 1,891,101 (2004 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Nationality noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Natural resources land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Net migration rate -2.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 9,945 km; oil 1,821 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]]; Millat Party or MP [Farooq LEGHARI]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muttahida Quami Movement, Haqiqi faction or MQM/H [Afaq AHMAD]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed Afzal KHAN]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Democratic Party or PDP [Mehbooba Mufti SAYEED]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of May 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]

note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Population 159,196,336 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 35% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 1.98% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Radio broadcast stations AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Railways total: 8,163 km

broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Religions Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Telephone system general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks

international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 3,982,800 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,624,800 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Total fertility rate 4.29 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.7% plus substantial underemployment (2003 est.)
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