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Pakistan (2002)

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Pakistan 2002 year

Administrative divisions 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh

note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Age structure 0-14 years: 39.9% (male 30,321,217; female 28,581,334)

15-64 years: 56% (male 42,254,996; female 40,392,092)

65 years and over: 4.1% (male 2,984,391; female 3,129,399) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Airports 120 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 87

over 3,047 m: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 32

914 to 1,523 m: 17

under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 38

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 19 (2002)
Area total: 803,940 sq km

land: 778,720 sq km

water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of California
Background The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998.
Birth rate 30.4 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $8.9 billion

expenditures: $11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Capital Islamabad
Climate mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Coastline 1,046 km
Constitution 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999
Country name conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

conventional short form: Pakistan

former: West Pakistan
Currency Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Death rate 9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $31.5 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL

embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200

telephone: [92] (51) 2080-0000

FAX: [92] (51) 2276427

consulate(s): Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ashraf Jehangir QAZI

chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6205

FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, and Sunnyvale (California)
Disputes - international armed stand-off with India over the status and sovereignty of Kashmir continues; dispute with India over the terminus of Rann of Kutch prevents extension of a maritime boundary; water-sharing problems with India persist over the Indus River (Wular Barrage); close ties with Pashtuns in Afghanistan make long border difficult to control
Economic aid - recipient $2 billion (FY99/00)
Economy - overview Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, suffers from internal political disputes, lack of foreign investment, and a costly confrontation with neighboring India. Pakistan's economic prospects, marred by poor human development indicators, low levels of foreign investment, and reliance on international creditors for hard currency inflows, were nonetheless on an upswing through most of 2001. The MUSHARRAF government made significant inroads in macroeconomic reform - it completed an IMF short-term loan program for the first time and improved its standing with international creditors by increasing revenue collection and restraining the fiscal deficit in the 2001/02 budget. While Pakistan has capitalized on its international standing after the 11 September terrorist attacks on the US by garnering substantial assistance from abroad - including $1.3 billion in IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility aid and $12.5 billion in Paris Club debt rescheduling - long-term prospects remain uncertain. GDP growth will continue to hinge on crop performance; dependence on foreign oil leaves the import bill vulnerable to fluctuating oil prices; and foreign and domestic investors remain wary of committing to projects in Pakistan. Pakistani trade levels - already in decline due to the global economic downturn - worsened in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks.
Electricity - consumption 58.299 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 62.687 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 64%

hydro: 35%

nuclear: 1%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Exchange rates Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 60.719 (January 2002), 61.927 (2001), 53.648 (2000), 49.118 (1999), 44.943 (1998), 40.918 (1997)
Executive branch note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; exercising the powers of the head of the government, he appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as Pakistan's supreme governing body; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years

chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001) note - MUSHARRAF is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Chief Executive Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 May 2000) note - MUSHARRAF is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief executive

elections: legislative election last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); prior to the military takeover, Pakistan had an elected president and prime minister; the president was elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 31 December 1997; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition was usually elected prime minister by the National Assembly

election results: results are for the 10 October 2002 election for prime minister - Mir Zafarullah Khan JAMALI elected prime minister (not a position of real power)
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $8.8 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities textiles (garments, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, other agricultural products
Exports - partners US 24.8%, UK 6.5%, UAE 6.2%, Hong Kong 5.9%, Germany 5.6%, (2000)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $299 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 26%

industry: 24%

services: 50% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Geography - note controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Heliports 13 (2002)
Highways total: 247,811 km

paved: 141,252 km (including 339 km of expressways)

unpaved: 106,559 km (1998)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 28% (1997) (1997)
Illicit drugs opium poppy cultivation practically eliminated; key transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western markets; Afghan narcotics continue to transit Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Balochistan Province, and Karachi; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $9.2 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, petroleum, petroleum products, chemicals, transportation equipment, edible oils, grains, pulses, flour
Imports - partners Kuwait 11.7%, UAE 10.7%, Saudi Arabia 10.5%, US 6%, Japan 5.6% (2000)
Independence 14 August 1947 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7% (2001 est.)
Industries textiles, food processing, beverages, construction materials, clothing, paper products, shrimp
Infant mortality rate 78.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 30 (2000)
Irrigated land 180,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Labor force 40.4 million

note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2000)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 44%, industry 17%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 6,774 km

border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Land use arable land: 27.81%

permanent crops: 0.79%

other: 71.4% (1998 est.)
Languages Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Legal system based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats - formerly 87; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for election every two years) and the National Assembly (342 seats - formerly 217; 10 seats represent minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held by October 2002); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2007)

election results: Senate results are for the last election prior to the military takeover; - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J 2, BNM/H 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National Assembly results are for the 10 October 2002 election - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPP 71, PML/Q 69, MMA 53, PML/N 14, MQM 13, MP 12, PML/F 4, PML/J 2, PPP/SB 2, female elected members 60, independents 21, minorities 10, others 11

note: Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dismissed Parliament 15 October 1999
Life expectancy at birth total population: 61.82 years

male: 60.96 years

female: 62.73 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.7%

male: 55.3%

female: 29% (1998)
Location Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Map references Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 241,832 GRT/367,093 DWT

ships by type: cargo 13, container 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2,545.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.6% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 36,941,592 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 22,606,576 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 1,657,724 (2002 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Nationality noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani
Natural hazards frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Natural resources land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Net migration rate -0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)
Political parties and leaders Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. HAYEE Baluch]; Baluch National Party or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI [Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI]; Millat Party or MP [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli Yakjheti Council or MYC is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ], Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO [Shah Ahmad NOORANI]; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [NA leader]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed AFZAL Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Democratic Party or PDP [Nawabadzada KHAN]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League, Quaid-l-Azam faction or PML/Q [Mian AZHAR]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]

note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Population 147,663,429 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 35% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.06% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Radio broadcast stations AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Radios 13.5 million (1997)
Railways total: 8,163 km

broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)
Religions Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims
Telephone system general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 2.861 million (March 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 158,000 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Total fertility rate 4.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.3% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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