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Austria (2008)

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Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.1% (male 633,375/female 603,459)

15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,781,291/female 2,749,539)

65 years and over: 17.5% (male 585,747/female 846,372) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Airports 55 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 25

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 15 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 30

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 26 (2007)
Area total: 83,870 sq km

land: 82,444 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic Monetary Union in 1999.
Birth rate 8.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $176.4 billion

expenditures: $178.3 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Vienna

geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945; note - during the period 1 May 1934-1 May 1945 there was a fascist (corporative) constitution in place
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich
Death rate 9.84 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $752.5 billion (30 June 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Scott KILNER

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0

FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international in 2006, Austrian public protests for the Czech Republic to close the Temelin nuclear power plant resulted in a parliamentary motion threatening international legal action
Economic aid - donor ODA, $681 million (2004)
Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU economies. The outgoing government has successfully pursued a comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining government and creating a more competitive business environment, further strengthening Austria's attractiveness as an investment location. It has implemented effective pension reforms; however, lower taxes in 2005-06 led to a small budget deficit in 2006 and 2007. Boosted by strong exports, growth nevertheless reached 3.3% in both 2006 and 2007, although the economy may slow in 2008 because of the strong euro, high oil prices, and problems in international financial markets. To meet increased competition - especially from new EU members and Central European countries - Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor participation by its aging population.
Electricity - consumption 60.25 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports 17.73 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports 20.4 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - production 61.02 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 July 2004)

head of government: Chancellor Alfred GUSENBAUER (SPOe) (since 11 January 2007); Vice Chancellor Wilhelm MOLTERER (OeVP) (since 11 January 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2010); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER 47.6%

note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP
Exports 17.73 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Exports $158.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 936.1 million cu m (2005)
Exports 34,680 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners Germany 30.2%, Italy 9%, US 5.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.6%

industry: 30.4%

services: 67.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs
Imports 20.4 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Imports $157.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 9.063 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 157,500 bbl/day (2005)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners Germany 45.5%, Italy 7%, Switzerland 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2006)
Independence 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)
Industrial production growth rate 2.5% (2007 est.)
Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 40 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Labor force 3.56 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 3%

industry: 27%

services: 70% (2005 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,562 km

border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Land use arable land: 16.59%

permanent crops: 0.85%

other: 82.56% (2005)
Languages German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene,official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)
Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members chosen by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 members according to its population; to serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Council - last held 1 October 2006 (next scheduled for the fall of 2010)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 35.3%, OeVP 34.3%, Greens 11.1%, FPOe 11.0%, BZOe 4.1%, other 4.2%; seats by party - SPOe 68, OeVP 66, Greens 21, FPOe 21, BZOe 7
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.21 years

male: 76.32 years

female: 82.26 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: NA

female: NA
Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 31,705 GRT/40,627 DWT

by type: cargo 5, container 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)

registered in other countries: 4 (Cyprus 1, Malta 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 2) (2007)
Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (2005 est.)
National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Nationality noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian
Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Natural resources oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Net migration rate 1.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Peter WESTENTHALER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wilhelm MOLTERER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Population 8,199,783 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 5.9% (2004)
Population growth rate 0.077% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 6,383 km

standard gauge: 5,924 km 1.435-m gauge (3,772 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 371 km 1.000-m gauge; 88 km 0.760-m gauge (25 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.012 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.692 male(s)/female

total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 16 years of age; universal; note - reduced from 18 years of age in 2007
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient

domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership elipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available

international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.564 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 9.255 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Total fertility rate 1.37 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.3% (2007 est.)
Waterways 358 km (2007)
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