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Austria (2006)

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Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 645,337/female 614,602)

15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,782,712/female 2,749,620)

65 years and over: 17.1% (male 567,752/female 832,857) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Airports 55 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 25

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 15 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 30

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 26 (2006)
Area total: 83,870 sq km

land: 82,444 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some Austrians have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
Birth rate 8.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $148.6 billion

expenditures: $154.5 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Vienna

geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich
Death rate 9.76 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $510.6 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Susan R. McCAW

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0

FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international Austrian anti-nuclear activists have revived blockades of the Czech-Austrian border to protest operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic
Economic aid - donor ODA, $681 million (2004)
Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU economies. The current government has successfully pursued a comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining government, creating a more competitive business environment, further strengthening Austria's attractiveness as an investment location, pursuing a balanced budget, and implementing effective pension reforms. Weak domestic consumption and slow growth in Europe have held the economy to growth rates of 0.4% in 2002, 1.4% in 2003, 2.4% in 2004, and 1.8% in 2005. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, particularly the new EU members, Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor participation by its aging population.
Electricity - consumption 64.78 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports 13.53 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports 16.63 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production 63.69 billion kWh (2004)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)

head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held April 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%

note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
Exports 13.53 billion kWh (2004)
Exports $122.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2004)
Exports 30,140 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners Germany 31.2%, Italy 8.7%, US 5.8%, Switzerland 5.2%, France 4.2% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1.8%

industry: 30.4%

services: 67.8% (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.8% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Heliports 1 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
Imports 16.63 billion kWh (2004)
Imports $118.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 7.05 billion cu m (2004)
Imports 152,600 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners Germany 45.9%, Italy 6.6%, Switzerland 4.5% (2005)
Independence 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)
Industrial production growth rate 4.7% (2005 est.)
Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 40 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Labor force 3.49 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 3%

industry: 27%

services: 70% (2005 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,562 km

border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Land use arable land: 16.59%

permanent crops: 0.85%

other: 82.56% (2005)
Languages German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)
Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least 3 representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Council - last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2010)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 35.3%, OeVP 34.3%, Greens 11.1%, FPOe 11.0%, BZOe 4.1%; seats by party - SPOe 68, OeVP 66, Greens 21, FPOe 21, BZOe 7
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.07 years

male: 76.17 years

female: 82.11 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: NA

female: NA
Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,072 GRT/44,437 DWT

by type: cargo 6, container 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)

registered in other countries: 14 (Liberia 13, Malta 1) (2006)
Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (2004)
National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Nationality noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian
Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Natural resources oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Net migration rate 1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Joerg HAIDER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Population 8,192,880 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 5.9% (2004)
Population growth rate 0.09% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 6,011 km

standard gauge: 5,568 km 1.435-m gauge (3,427 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 21 km 1.000-m gauge; 422 km 0.760-m gauge (109 km electrified) (2005)
Religions Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient

domestic: there are 45 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available

international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2005)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.705 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 8.16 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Total fertility rate 1.36 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.2% (2005 est.)
Waterways 358 km (2003)
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