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Austria (2003)

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Austria 2003 year

Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.2% (male 678,944; female 646,390)

15-64 years: 68.3% (male 2,827,736; female 2,768,480)

65 years and over: 15.5% (male 490,979; female 775,678) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Airports 55 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 14 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 27 (2002)
Area total: 83,858 sq km

land: 82,738 sq km

water: 1,120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.
Birth rate 9.43 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $53 billion

expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Vienna
Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich
Currency euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $12.1 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [43] (1) 31339, 31375, 31335

FAX: [43] (1) 5125835
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Disputes - international minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Economic aid - donor ODA, $410 million (2000)
Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2% growth in 2001, 0.6% in 2002, and 0.8% in 2003.. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the labor market by its ageing population.
Electricity - consumption 54.85 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 58.75 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 29.3%

hydro: 67.2%

nuclear: 0%

other: 3.5% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those who have lived in Austria at least three generations)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999), 12.38 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)

head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%

note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
Exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $70 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports 403 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 35,470 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners Germany 31.5%, Italy 9.3%, Switzerland 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.9%, France 4.7%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
GDP purchasing power parity - $227.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2%

industry: 33%

services: 65% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 200,000 km

paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
Imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $74 billion c.i.f. (2001)
Imports 6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 262,000 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners Germany 42.6%, Italy 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Switzerland 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2002)
Independence 1156 (from Bavaria)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2001 est.)
Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 37 (2000)
Irrigated land 457 sq km (2000 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Labor force 4.3 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,562 km

border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Land use arable land: 16.89%

permanent crops: 0.99%

other: 82.12% (1998 est.)
Languages German
Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.17 years

male: 75.02 years

female: 81.48 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 27,551 GRT/34,225 DWT

ships by type: cargo 4, container 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (FY01/02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,093,821 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,725,123 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 49,090 (2003 est.)
National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Nationality noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian
Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Natural resources iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Net migration rate 2.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 687 km; refined products 149 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Herbert HAUPT]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers
Population 8,188,207 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.22% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 6,024 km (3,641 km electrified)

standard gauge: 5,566 km 1.435-m gauge (3,524 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 424 km 0.760-m gauge (89 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient

domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Telephones - main lines in use 4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations 45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Total fertility rate 1.41 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.8% (2002 est.)
Waterways 358 km (1999)
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