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Austria (2004)

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Austria 2004 year

Administrative divisions 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.9% (male 665,680; female 633,560)

15-64 years: 68.1% (male 2,799,411; female 2,764,426)

65 years and over: 16% (male 518,748; female 792,937) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Airports 55 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 14 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 27 (2004 est.)
Area total: 83,870 sq km

land: 82,444 sq km

water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maine
Background Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some Austrian's have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.
Birth rate 8.9 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $67 billion

expenditures: $70 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Vienna
Climate temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Austria

conventional short form: Austria

local long form: Republik Oesterreich

local short form: Oesterreich
Currency euro (EUR)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; as of 1 January 2002, the euro became the only legal tender in EMU member countries, including Austria
Death rate 9.56 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $15.5 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.

embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0, 31375, 31335

FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY

chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035

telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Disputes - international minor disputes with the Czech Republic over the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant
Economic aid - donor ODA, $520 million (2002)
Economy - overview Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slow growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to 0.7% growth in 2001, 1.4% in 2002, and again less than 1% in 2003. However, recent data signal that the recovery has started. The government estimates economic growth in 2004 of 1.7-2.1% and of 2.5% in 2005. The government is planning a EURO 500 billion income tax cut in 2004, though some economists doubt it will have stimulative effects in 2004, because it will be offset by higher health insurance contributions and higher taxes on energy. For 2005, Austria plans a tax cut of EURO 2.5 billion and harmonization of the various pension schemes. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, particularly the new EU members, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden. A key issue is the encouragement of much greater participation in the labor market by its aging population.
Electricity - consumption 54.85 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 58.75 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Environment - current issues some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Ethnic groups German 88.5%, indigenous minorities 1.5% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), recent immigrant groups 10% (includes Turks, Bosnians, Serbians, Croatians) (2001)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)

head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held NA April 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%

note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
Exports 14.25 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $83.45 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 403 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 35,470 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners Germany 31.9%, Italy 9.6%, Switzerland 5.2%, US 4.9%, France 4.8%, UK 4.7% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
GDP purchasing power parity - $245.3 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.5%

industry: 25.7%

services: 70.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $30,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.7% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 20 N, 13 20 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 200,000 km

paved: 200,000 km (including 1,633 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 22.5% (1995)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
Imports 14.47 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $81.59 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 6.033 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 262,000 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners Germany 43.2%, Italy 6.7%, Hungary 5.4%, Switzerland 5%, Netherlands 4.2% (2003)
Independence 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)
Industrial production growth rate 1.9% (2003 est.)
Industries construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.4% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 457 sq km (2000 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Labor force 3.425 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture and forestry 4%, industry and crafts 29%, services 67% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,562 km

border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Land use arable land: 16.91%

permanent crops: 0.86%

other: 82.23% (2001)
Languages German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)
Legal system civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)

election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.5%, FPOe 10.0%, Greens 9.5%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 18, Greens 17
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.87 years

male: 76 years

female: 81.89 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: NA

female: NA
Location Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,624 GRT/37,425 DWT

by type: cargo 4, container 2

foreign-owned: Netherlands 1

registered in other countries: 34 (2004 est.)
Military branches Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.85% (June 2004)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,066,467 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,699,384 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 48,981 (2004 est.)
National holiday National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Nationality noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian
Natural hazards landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Natural resources oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Net migration rate 2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Ursula HAUBNER]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Population 8,174,762 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 3.9% (1999)
Population growth rate 0.14% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 6,021 km (3,552 km electrified)

standard gauge: 5,565 km 1.435-m gauge (3,430 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 422 km 0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified) (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 0.1%, none 17.4%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and efficient

domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available

international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.881 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 7,094,500 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Total fertility rate 1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.4% (2003 est.)
Waterways 358 km (2003)
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