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Lithuania (2008)

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Lithuania 2008 year

Administrative divisions 10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.9% (male 273,573/female 259,570)

15-64 years: 69.3% (male 1,213,011/female 1,264,996)

65 years and over: 15.8% (male 194,500/female 369,789) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
Airports 87 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 30

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 17 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 57

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 53 (2007)
Area total: 65,200 sq km

land: NA sq km

water: NA sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than West Virginia
Background Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795, when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I, but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Birth rate 8.87 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $12.36 billion

expenditures: $12.54 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Vilnius

geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Coastline 99 km
Constitution adopted 25 October 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 11.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $22.7 billion (30 June 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD

embassy: Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106

mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106

telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500

FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA

chancery: 4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860

FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Disputes - international Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
Economic aid - recipient $249.7 million (2004)
Economy - overview Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has grown rapidly since rebounding from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment fell to 3.2% in 2007, while wages continued to grow at double digit rates, contributing to rising inflation. Exports and imports also grew strongly, and the current account deficit rose to nearly 15% of GDP in 2007. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
Electricity - consumption 9.296 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 8.607 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 5.641 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 13.48 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m
Environment - current issues contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
Exchange rates litai per US dollar - 2.5362 (2007), 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004), 3.0609 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 July 2006)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held June 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament

election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13, with five abstentions
Exports 8.607 billion kWh (2005)
Exports $17.09 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 145,100 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports - partners Russia 12.8%, Latvia 11.1%, Germany 8.6%, Estonia 6.5%, Poland 6.1%, Netherlands 4.8%, Sweden 4.5%, UK 4.4%, US 4.3%, Denmark 4.2%, France 4.2% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5.2%

industry: 34.2%

services: 60.6% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 8% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 56 00 N, 24 00 E
Geography - note fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 27.7% (2003)
Illicit drugs transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation
Imports 5.641 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $22.64 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 2.916 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 187,800 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partners Russia 24.3%, Germany 14.9%, Poland 9.5%, Latvia 4.8% (2006)
Independence 11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 5.5% (2007 est.)
Industries metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
Infant mortality rate total: 6.68 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.99 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.4% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 70 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Labor force 1.587 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 15.8%

industry: 28.2%

services: 56% (2004)
Land boundaries total: 1,613 km

border countries: Belarus 653.5 km, Latvia 588 km, Poland 103.7 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 267.8 km
Land use arable land: 44.81%

permanent crops: 0.9%

other: 54.29% (2005)
Languages Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
Legal system based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, TS 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian People's Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Farmers and New Democracy Union 6.6%, other 9%; seats by faction - Social Democrats 32, TS 25, Labor 23, Farmers National Union 20 (combined with Civil Democracy), Liberal Democrats/Order and Justice 11, New Union Social Liberals 10, Liberal and Center Union 9, Liberal Movement 9 (as of December 2007)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.44 years

male: 69.46 years

female: 79.69 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.6%

female: 99.6% (2001 census)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm
Merchant marine total: 50 ships (1000 GRT or over) 363,795 GRT/366,624 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 22, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 16

foreign-owned: 9 (Denmark 9)

registered in other countries: 20 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, North Korea 1, Norway 1, Panama 5, St Vincent and The Grenadines 7, unknown 3) (2007)
Military branches Ground Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.2% (2006; 1.23% 2007 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources peat, arable land, amber
Net migration rate -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 1,695 km; oil 228 km; refined products 121 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; National Farmer's Union or VLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Democrats/Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Liberal Movement or LLS [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 3,575,439 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 4% (2003)
Population growth rate -0.289% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Railways total: 1,771 km

broad gauge: 1,749 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)

standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.959 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.526 male(s)/female

total population: 0.887 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access

domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of main line subscriptions; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 135 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons

international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland
Telephones - main lines in use 792,400 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4.718 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 27 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2001)
Terrain lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Total fertility rate 1.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.2%

note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7% (2007 est.)
Waterways 425 km (2005)
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