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Georgia (2008)

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Georgia 2008 roku

 Georgia
Podzial administracyjny 9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)


regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli


city: Tbilisi


autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)


note: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16.7% (male 413,506/female 364,407)


15-64 years: 66.6% (male 1,489,081/female 1,605,021)


65 years and over: 16.7% (male 311,098/female 462,890) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
Lotniska 23 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 19


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 7


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Terytorium total: 69,700 sq km


land: 69,700 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than South Carolina
Tlo historyczne The region of present-day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence w the first centuries A.D. and Christianity became the state religion w the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed dla influence w the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Rosjan Empire w the 19th century. Independent dla three years (1918-1921) following the Rosjan revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved w 1991. An attempt by the incumbent Georgian government to manipulate national legislative elections w listopad 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. New elections w early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along z his National Movement party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made w the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by two ethnic conflicts w the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. These two territories remain outside the control of the central government and are ruled by de facto, unrecognized governments, supported by Rosja. Rosjan-led peacekeeping operations continue w both regions.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $3.68 billion


expenditures: $3.006 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: T'bilisi


geographic coordinates: 41 43 N, 44 47 E


time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Linia brzegowa 310 km
Konstytucja adopted 24 sierpien 1995
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Georgia


local long form: none


local short form: Sak'art'velo


former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.5 billion (2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador John F. TEFFT


embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131


mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060


telephone: [995] (32) 27-70-00


FAX: [995] (32) 53-23-10
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Vasil SIKHARULIDZE


chancery: 2209 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390


FAX: [1] (202) 393-4537
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Rosja and Georgia agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments and the maritime boundary unresolved; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge w the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge w Abkhazia; UN Observer Mission w Georgia has maintained a peacekeeping force w Georgia since 1993; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary z Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups w Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbejdzan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $309.8 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Georgia's economy has sustained robust Produkt krajowy brutto growth of close to 10% w 2006 and 12% w 2007, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. However, a widening trade deficit and higher inflation are emerging risks to the economy. Terytoriums of recent improvement include increasing foreign direct investment as well as growth w the construction, banking services and mining sectors. Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, aircraft and chemicals. The country imports nearly all its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity, a growing component of its energy supplies. Despite the severe damage the economy suffered due to civil strife w the 1990s, Georgia, z the help of the IMF and Swiat Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 2000, achieving positive Produkt krajowy brutto growth and curtailing inflation. Georgia's Produkt krajowy brutto growth neared 10% w 2006 and 2007 despite restrictions on commerce z Rosja. Terytoriums of recent improvement include increased foreign direct investment as well as growth w the construction, banking services, and mining sectors. In addition, the reinvigorated privatization process has met z success. However, a widening trade deficit and higher inflation are emerging risks to the economy. Georgia has suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, the new government is making progress and has reformed the tax code, improved tax administration, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on corruption. Government revenues have increased nearly four fold since 2003. Due to improvements w customs and financial (tax) enforcement, smuggling is a declining problem. Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by bringing newly available natural gas supplies from Azerbejdzan. It also has an increased ability to pay dla more expensive gas imports from Rosja. The country is pinning its hopes dla long-term growth on a determined effort to reduce regulation, taxes and corruption w order to attract foreign investment. The construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the Baku-T'bilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline, and the Kars-Akhalkalaki Railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit point dla gas, oil and other goods.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.146 billion kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 625 million kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 433 million kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 8.338 billion kWh (2007)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Black Sea 0 m


highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution, particularly w Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Rosjan 1.5%, other 2.5% (2002 census)
Kurs waluty lari per US dollar - 1.7 (2007), 1.78 (2006), 1.8127 (2005), 1.9167 (2004), 2.1457 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 styczen 2004); the president is both the chief of state and head of government dla the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense


head of government: President Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 styczen 2004); Prime Minister Lado GURGENIDZE (since 19 listopad 2007); the president is both the chief of state and head of government dla the power ministries: state security (includes interior) and defense; the prime minister is head of the remaining ministries of government


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 5 styczen 2008 (next to be held styczen 2013)


election results: Mikheil SAAKASHVILI reelected president; percent of vote - Mikheil SAAKASHVILI 53.5%, Levan GACHECHILADZE 25.7%, Badri PATARKATSISHVILI 7.1%
Eksport 625 million kWh (2007)
Eksport $1.24 billion (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005)
Eksport 2,400 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary scrap metal, wine, mineral water, ores, vehicles, fruits and nuts
Eksport - partnerzy Turcja 12.7%, Azerbejdzan 9.4%, Rosja 7.7%, Armenia 7.5%, Turkmenistan 7.3%, Bulgaria 6.4%, US 6%, Ukraina 5.8%, Kanada 5%, Niemcy 4.6% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi white rectangle, w its central portion a red cross connecting all four sides of the flag; w each of the four corners is a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; the five-cross flag appears to date back to the 14th century
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12.3%


industry: 29.7%


services: 58% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 12% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 42 00 N, 43 30 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
Ladowiska helikopterow 3 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%


highest 10%: 27% (2005)
Narkotyki limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly dla domestic consumption; used as transshipment point dla opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Rosja
Import 433 million kWh (2007)
Import $5.2 billion (2007 est.)
Import 1.264 billion cu m (2005)
Import 13,530 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Import - partnerzy Rosja 15.2%, Turcja 14.2%, Niemcy 9.5%, Ukraina 8.7%, Azerbejdzan 8.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 9 kwiecien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12% (2007 est.)
Przemysl steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 17.36 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 19.42 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 15.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 11% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT (observer), ADB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 4,690 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's or chairman of the Supreme Court's recommendation); Konstytucjaal Court; first and second instance courts
Sila robocza 2.02 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 55.6%


industry: 8.9%


services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 1,461 km


border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbejdzan 322 km, Rosja 723 km, Turcja 252 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 11.51%


permanent crops: 3.79%


other: 84.7% (2005)
Jezyki Georgian 71% (official), Rosjan 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%


note: Abkhaz is the official language w Abkhazia
System prawny based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Parlamenti (also known as Supreme Council or Umaghlesi Sabcho) (235 seats; 150 members elected by proportional representation, 75 from single-seat constituencies, and 10 represent displaced persons from Abkhazia; to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 28 marzec 2004 (next to be held w spring 2008)


election results: percent of vote by party - National Movement-Democratic Front 67.6%, Rightist Opposition 7.6%, other parties 24.8%; seats by party - National Movement-Democratic Front 135, Rightist Opposition 15
Zywotnosc total population: 76.3 years


male: 73 years


female: 80.07 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 100%


male: 100%


female: 100% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turcja and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 209 ships (1000 GRT or over) 958,504 GRT/1,408,540 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 159, carrier 2, chemical tanker 1, container 5, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 1


foreign-owned: 180 (Albania 2, Azerbejdzan 1, Chiny 4, Cypr 1, Egipt 14, Niemcy 2, Grecja 7, Liban 3, Monako 10, Rumunia 15, Rosja 17, Slowenia 2, Syria 54, Turcja 23, Ukraina 24, UAE 1) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi a CIS peacekeeping force of Rosjan troops is deployed w the Abkhazia region of Georgia together z a UN military observer group; a Rosjan peacekeeping battalion is deployed w South Ossetia
Wojsko Georgian Armed Forces: Land Forces (includes National Guard), Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.59% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 26 maj (1918); note - 26 maj 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Rosja, 9 kwiecien 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Georgian(s)


adjective: Georgian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes
Surowce naturalne forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow dla important tea and citrus growth
Wspolczynnik migracji -4.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,591 km; oil 1,253 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Burjanadze-Democrats [Nino BURJANADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Georgia's Way Party [Salome ZOURABICHVILI]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]; National Movement Democratic Front [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI] (bloc composed of National Movement and Burjanadze-Democrats); National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rights [David GAMKRELIDZE]; Republican Party [David USUPASHVILI]; Rightist Opposition [David GAMKRELIDZE] (bloc composed of Industrialists and New Right Party); Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]; Union of National Forces-Conservatives [Koba DAVITASHVILI and Zviad DZIDZIGURI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government w exile; separatists w the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Ludnosc 4,646,003 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 31% (2006)
Przyrost naturalny -0.329% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,612 km


broad gauge: 1,575 km 1.520-m gauge (1,575 electrified)


narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 electrified) (2006)
Religie Orthodox Christian 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7% (2002 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.14 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.135 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.928 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.672 male(s)/female


total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has only limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country


domestic: cellular telephone networks now cover the entire country; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available


international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Rosja fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Rosja; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 544,000 (2007)
Telefony komorkowe 2.4 million (2007)
Stacje telewizyjne 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu largely mountainous z Great Caucasus Mountains w the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains w the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea w the west; Mtkvari River Basin w the east; good soils w river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.42 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Transport - uwagi large parts of transportation network are w poor condition because of lack of maintenance and repair
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 13.6% (2006 est.)
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