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Georgia (2003)

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Georgia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 9 regions, (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*, Tsqaltubo*, Zugdidi*

note: the administrative centers of the 2 autonomous republics are shown in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.6% (male 466,743; female 449,440)

15-64 years: 68.4% (male 1,628,757; female 1,744,922)

65 years and over: 13% (male 252,031; female 392,520) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products citrus, grapes, tea, hazlenuts, vegetables; livestock
Airports 40 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 22

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 7 (2002)
Area total: 69,700 sq km

land: 69,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, poor governance, and Russian military bases deny the government effective control over the entirety of the state's internationally recognized territory. Despite myriad problems, some progress on market reforms and democratization has been made. An attempt by the government to manipulate legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of President Eduard SHEVARDNADZE.
Birth rate 11.79 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $499 million

expenditures: $554 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital T'bilisi
Climate warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Coastline 310 km
Constitution adopted 17 October 1995
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Georgia

local long form: none

local short form: Sak'art'velo

former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency lari (GEL)
Death rate 14.71 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $1.7 billion (2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard M. MILES

embassy: #25 Atoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026

mailing address: 7060 Tbilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060

telephone: [995] (32) 989-967/68

FAX: [995] (32) 933-759
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Levan MIKELADZE

chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390

FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060
Disputes - international boundary with Russia has been largely delimited, but not demarcated with several small, strategic segments remaining in dispute and OSCE observers monitoring volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge in Abkhazia; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy, closer ties with Armenia
Economic aid - recipient ODA $150 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as citrus fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995, achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. However, the Georgian Government suffers from limited resources due to a chronic failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the T'bilisi distribution network in 1998, but collection rates are low, making the venture unprofitable. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term growth on its role as a transit state for pipelines and trade. The start of construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and the Baku-T'bilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline will bring much-needed investment and job opportunities.
Electricity - consumption 7.611 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 850 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 7.27 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 19.7%

hydro: 80.3%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m
Environment - current issues air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
Exchange rates lari per US dollar - 2.2 (2002), 2.07 (2001), 1.98 (2000), 2.02 (1999), 1.39 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Nino BURJANADZE (acting president since 23 November 2003; formerly parliamentary speaker, she assumed the presidency upon the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nino BURJANADZE (acting president since 23 November 2003; formerly parliamentary speaker, she assumed the presidency upon the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held 4 January 2004 to replace Eduard SHEVARDNADZE)

election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE reelected president; percent of vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 80%; note - following the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, Nino BURJANADZE became acting president
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $515 million (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities scrap metal, machinery, chemicals; fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea, wine
Exports - partners Turkey 23%, Italy 12.1%, Russia 11.4%, Greece 8.5%, Netherlands 7.5%, Spain 5.9%, Turkmenistan 4.7%, Ukraine 4.3% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below
GDP purchasing power parity - $16.05 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20%

industry: 25%

services: 55% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 42 00 N, 43 30 E
Geography - note strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
Highways total: 20,362 km

paved: 19,038 km

unpaved: 1,325 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 27.9% (1996)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia
Imports 850 million kWh (2001)
Imports $750 million (2002 est.)
Imports 1.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners Turkey 15.6%, Azerbaijan 11.2%, US 9.9%, Russia 9.1%, Germany 7.2%, Italy 5.1%, Bulgaria 4.9%, Romania 4.3%, France 4.2%, Ukraine 4.1% (2002)
Independence 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2000)
Industries steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese and copper), chemicals, wood products, wine
Infant mortality rate total: 51.24 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 56.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 45.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.2% (2002 est.)
International organization participation BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court
Labor force 2.1 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry 20%, agriculture 40%, services 40% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,461 km

border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Land use arable land: 11.21%

permanent crops: 4.09%

other: 84.7% (1998 est.)
Languages Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%

note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 November 2003 but results were invalidated (next to be held spring 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party (from earlier 1999 elections) - CUG 41.7%, AGUR 25.2%, IWSG 7.1%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by party - CUG 130, AGUR 64, IWSG 15, Labor 2, Abkhaz (government-in-exile) deputies 12, independents 12
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.76 years

male: 61.33 years

female: 68.36 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 100%

female: 98% (1999 est.)
Location Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims NA
Merchant marine total: 116 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 483,028 GRT/713,461 DWT

ships by type: bulk 16, cargo 72, chemical tanker 1, container 11, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belize 1, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 4, Gibraltar 1, Greece 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 1, Liberia 1, Malta 1, Panama 9, Romania 8, Russia 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria 5, Turkey 2, Ukraine 7, UAE 11, UK 1, US 1 (2002 est.)
Military - note a CIS peacekeeping force of Russian troops is deployed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia together with a UN military observer group; a Russian peacekeeping battalion is deployed in South Ossetia
Military branches Ground Forces (includes National Guard), combined Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Republic Security and Police Forces (internal and border troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $23 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.59% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,302,815 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,028,913 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 43,359 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 is the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun: Georgian(s)

adjective: Georgian
Natural hazards earthquakes
Natural resources forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Net migration rate -2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 1,495 km; oil 1,029 km; refined products 232 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Avtandil JORBENADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; New National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Right [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican Party [David BERDZENISHVILI]; "Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government in exile; separatists in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA
Population 4,934,413 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 54% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate -0.52% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 1,612 km

broad gauge: 1,575 km 1.520-m gauge

narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (2002)
Religions Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available

international: Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
Telephones - main lines in use 620,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 185,500 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
Terrain largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Total fertility rate 1.51 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Transportation - note transportation network is in poor condition resulting from ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair
Unemployment rate 17% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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