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Macau (2008)

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Macau 2008 year

Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 36,413/female 33,981)

15-64 years: 76.6% (male 166,797/female 183,088)

65 years and over: 8% (male 15,541/female 21,169) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers; fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong
Airports 1 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 28.2 sq km

land: 28.2 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative less than one-sixth the size of Washington, DC
Background Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau, and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
Birth rate 8.57 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.6 billion

expenditures: $3.4 billion (2006)
Climate subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Coastline 41 km
Constitution Basic Law, approved on 31 March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Macau

local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
Death rate 4.59 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $0 (2006)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US the US has no offices in Macau; US Consulate General in Hong Kong is accredited to Macau
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $13.7 million (2004)
Economy - overview Macau's economy has enjoyed strong growth in recent years on the back of its expanding tourism and gaming sectors. Since opening up its locally-controlled casino industry to foreign competition in 2001, the territory has attracted 10s of billions of dollars in foreign investment that have helped transform it into the world's largest gaming center. In 2006, Macau's gaming revenue surpassed that of the Las Vegas strip, and gaming-related taxes accounted for 75% of total government revenue. The expanding casino sector, and China's decision beginning in 2002 to relax travel restrictions, have reenergized Macau's tourism industry, which saw total visitors grow to 27 million in 2007, up 62% in three years. Macau's strong economic growth has put pressure its labor market prompting businesses to look abroad to meet their staffing needs. The resulting influx of non-resident workers, who totaled one-fifth of the workforce in 2006, has fueled tensions among some segments of the population. Macau's traditional manufacturing industry has been in a slow decline. In 2006, exports of textiles and garments generated only $1.8 billion compared to $6.9 billion in gross gaming receipts. Macau's textile industry will continue to move to the mainland because of the termination in 2005 of the Multi-Fiber Agreement, which provided a near guarantee of export markets, leaving the territory more dependent on gambling and trade-related services to generate growth. However, the Closer Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) between Macau and mainland China that came into effect on 1 January 2004 offers many Macau-made products tariff-free access to the mainland. Macau's currency, the Pataca, is closely tied to the Hong Kong dollar, which is also freely accepted in the territory.
Electricity - consumption 2.37 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 964.4 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - production 1.67 billion kWh (2006)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Coloane Alto 172.4 m
Environment - current issues NA
Environment - international agreements party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Ethnic groups Chinese 95.7%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) 1%, other 3.3% (2001 census)
Exchange rates patacas per US dollar - 8.011 (2007), 8.0015 (2006), 8.011 (2005), 8.022 (2004), 8.021 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)

head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of one government secretary, three legislators, four businessmen, one pro-Beijing unionist, and one pro-Beijing educator

elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 29 August 2004 (next to be held in 2009)

election results: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected received 296 votes; three members submitted blank ballots; one member was absent
Exports 0 kWh (2006)
Exports $2.557 billion f.o.b.; note - includes reexports (2006)
Exports 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Exports 21 bbl/day (2005)
Exports - commodities clothing, textiles, footwear, toys, electronics, machinery and parts
Exports - partners US 44.1%, China 14.8%, Hong Kong 11.3%, Germany 7.3%, UK 4.1% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 3.9%

services: 96% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 16.6% (2006)
Geographic coordinates 22 10 N, 113 33 E
Geography - note essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transshipment point for drugs going into mainland China; consumer of opiates and amphetamines
Imports 964.4 million kWh (2006)
Imports $4.559 billion c.i.f. (2006)
Imports 0 cu m (2006)
Imports 13,870 bbl/day (2006)
Imports - commodities raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods (foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco), capital goods, mineral fuels and oils
Imports - partners China 45.2%, Hong Kong 10.2%, Japan 8.4%, US 5.5%, Singapore 4.1%, France 4% (2006)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8%
Industries tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Infant mortality rate total: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.2% (2006)
International organization participation IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Court of Final Appeal in Macau Special Administrative Region
Labor force 275,000 (2006)
Labor force - by occupation manufacturing 11.1%, construction 11.7%, transport and communications 6.3%, wholesale and retail trade 13.7%, restaurants and hotels 11.3%, gambling 19.8%, public sector 7.7%, financial services 2.6%, other services and agriculture 15.7% (2006)
Land boundaries total: 0.34 km

regional border: China 0.34 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (2005)
Languages Cantonese 87.9%, Hokkien 4.4%, Mandarin 1.6%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 3% (2001 census)
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly (29 seats; 12 members elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 25 September 2005 (next in September 2009)

election results: percent of vote - New Democratic Macau Association 18.8%, Macau United Citizens' Association 16.6%, Union for Development 13.3%, Union for Promoting Progress 9.6%, Macau Development Alliance 9.3%, others 32.4%; seats by political group - New Democratic Macau Association 2, Macau United Citizens' Association 2, Union for Development 2, Union for Promoting Progress 2, Macau Development Alliance 1, others 3; 10 seats filled by professional and business groups; seven members appointed by chief executive
Life expectancy at birth total population: 82.27 years

male: 79.44 years

female: 85.25 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.3%

male: 95.3%

female: 87.8% (2001 census)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims not specified
Military - note defense is the responsibility of China
Military branches no regular military forces
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese
Natural hazards typhoons
Natural resources NEGL
Net migration rate 4.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Civil Service Union [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Development Union [KWAN Tsui-hang]; Macau Development Alliance [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Macau United Citizens' Association [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; United Forces

note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 456,989 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.841% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.072 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.911 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.734 male(s)/female

total population: 0.918 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage direct election 18 years of age for some non-executive positions, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Telephone system general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services

domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 140 per 100 persons in 2006; fixed-line teledensity about 40 per 100 persons

international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 178,013 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular 794,323 (2007)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2006)
Terrain generally flat
Total fertility rate 1.03 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.1% (2006)
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