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Macau (2005)

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Macau 2005 year

Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years: 17% (male 39,564/female 36,947)

15-64 years: 75.1% (male 160,957/female 176,386)

65 years and over: 7.9% (male 14,713/female 20,631) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers; fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important, some of catch is exported to Hong Kong; most food requirements are met by imports, primarily from China
Airports 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 25.4 sq km

land: 25.4 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau, and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
Birth rate 8.04 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.84 billion

expenditures: $1.57 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Climate subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Coastline 41 km
Constitution Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Macau

local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
Death rate 4.23 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $2.7 billion (2003)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US the US has no offices in Macau; US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient NA
Economy - overview Macau's well-to-do economy has remained one of the most open in the world since its reversion to China in 1999. Apparel exports and tourism are mainstays of the economy. Although the territory was hit hard by the 1998 Asian financial crisis and the global downturn in 2001, its economy grew 9.5% in 2002 and 15.6% in 2003. During the first three quarters of 2004, Macau registered year-on-year GDP increases of more than 20 percent. A rapid rise in the number of mainland visitors because of China's easing of restrictions on travel, increased public works expenditures, and significant investment inflows associated with the liberalization of Macau's gaming industry drove the recovery. The budget also returned to surplus in 2002 because of the surge in visitors from China and a hike in taxes on gambling profits, which generated about 70% of government revenue. The three companies awarded gambling licenses have pledged to invest $2.2 billion in the territory, which will boost GDP growth. Much of Macau's textile industry may move to the mainland as the Multi-Fiber Agreement is phased out. The territory may have to rely more on gambling and trade-related services to generate growth. Two new casinos were opened by new foreign gambling licensees in 2004; development of new infrastructure and facilities in preparation for Macau's hosting of the 2005 East Asian Games will bolster the construction sector. The Closer Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) between Macau and mainland China that came into effect on 1 January 2004 offers many Macau-made products tariff-free access to the mainland, and the range of products covered by CEPA was to be expanded on 1 January 2005.
Electricity - consumption 1.772 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 1 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 179.7 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 1.719 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Coloane Alto 172.4 m
Environment - current issues NA
Ethnic groups Chinese 95.7%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) 1%, other 3.3% (2001 census)
Exchange rates patacas per US dollar - 8.022 (2004), 8.021 (2003), 8.033 (2002), 8.034 (2001), 8.026 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)

head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of one government secretary, four legislators, four businessmen, and one pro-Beijing unionist

elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for up to two five-year terms

election results: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected on 29 August 2004; received 296 votes in Election Committee out of 300 possible; 3 members submitted blank ballots; 1 member was absent
Exports 1 million kWh (2003)
Exports $2.58 billion f.o.b., including reexports (2003)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities clothing, textiles, footwear, toys, electronics, machinery and parts
Exports - partners US 48.7%, China 13.9%, Germany 8.3%, Hong Kong 7.6%, UK 4.4% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 7.2%

services: 92.7% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,400 (2003)
GDP - real growth rate 15.6% (2003)
Geographic coordinates 22 10 N, 113 33 E
Geography - note essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland
Highways total: 341 km

paved: 341 km

unpaved: 0 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 179.7 million kWh (2003)
Imports $2.76 billion c.i.f. (2003)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods (foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco), capital goods, mineral fuels and oils
Imports - partners China 44.4%, Hong Kong 10.6%, Japan 9.6%, Taiwan 4.9%, Singapore 4.1%, US 4.1% (2004)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Infant mortality rate total: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (3rd quarter, 2004)
International organization participation IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (sub-bureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WToO (associate), WTO
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Court of Final Appeal in Macau Special Administrative Region
Labor force 231,500 (3rd Quarter, 2004)
Labor force - by occupation manufacturing 18.3%, construction 8%, transport and communications 7%, wholesale and retail trade 16.2%, restaurants and hotels 10.9%, gambling 11.6%, public sector 8.8%, other services and agriculture 19.2% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 0.34 km

regional border: China 0.34 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100%

note: "green areas" represent 22.4% (2001)
Languages Cantonese 87.9%, Hokkien 4.4%, Mandarin 1.6%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 3% (2001 census)
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (29 seats; 12 elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and seven appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 26 September 2005 (next in September 2009)

election results: percent of vote - Development Union 12.8%, Macau Development Alliance 9%, Macau United Citizens' Association 16%, New Democratic Macau Association 18.2%, others na; seats by political group - Development Union 2, Macau Development Alliance 1, Macau United Citizens' Association 2, New Democratic Macau Association 2, New Hope 1, Union Forces 2, others 2; 10 seats filled by professional and business groups; seven members appointed by chief executive
Life expectancy at birth total population: 82.12 years

male: 79.29 years

female: 85.09 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.5%

male: 97.2%

female: 92% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims not specified
Military branches China's People's Revolutionary Army (PLA) constitutes the only armed force in Macau; several police forces constitute the Security Forces of Macau (SFM) that are subordinate to the General Secretariat of Security, a body comparable to a ministry of interior (2004)
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese
Natural hazards typhoons
Natural resources NEGL
Net migration rate 4.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders Civil Service Union [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Development Union [KWAN Tsui-hang]; Macau Development Alliance [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Macau United Citizens' Association [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Macau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; United Forces [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 449,198 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.87% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Macau
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Telephone system general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services

domestic: NA

international: country code - 853; HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 174,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 364,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2003)
Terrain generally flat
Total fertility rate 0.93 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.7% (3rd Quarter, 2004)
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