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Macau (2002)

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Macau 2002 year

Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years: 21.8% (male 52,262; female 48,439)

15-64 years: 70.9% (male 154,942; female 172,647)

65 years and over: 7.3% (male 13,616; female 19,927) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, vegetables
Airports 1 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 25.4 sq km

land: 25.4 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.
Birth rate 12.19 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.15 billion

expenditures: $1.03 billion, including capital expenditures of $166 million (2000 est.)
Climate subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Coastline 41 km
Constitution Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Macau

local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
Currency pataca (MOP)
Death rate 3.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.5 billion (1998)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Macau's economy two years after reversion to China remains one of the most open in the world, according to the World Trade Organization. The government collects no duty on imports and sets no restrictions on exports beyond those required by international agreements. The territory's net exports of goods and services account for 35% of GDP, with tourism and apparel exports as the mainstays. The territory therefore has been hit hard by the 2001 downturn in its key US and EU export markets. Tourism remained strong, however, driven by a surge in visitors from mainland China. In response to the expected contraction of the economy in 2002, the government has announced a stimulative income tax cut and public works program that will push the budget into deficit. China already has extended support by easing restrictions on travel to Macau and is proposing a China-Hong Kong-Macau free trade area. China's economic weight is increasingly felt, with the mainland now holding more than 50% of assets in the financial, real estate, and construction sectors. Mainlanders, however, have been excluded from bidding on the gambling industry licenses that Macau is offering to break up the territory's four-decade-old gambling monopoly. Gambling taxes account for up to 60% of revenue, and the government with Beijing's backing intends to revitalize the industry.
Electricity - consumption 1.476 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 175 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 1.4 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Coloane Alto 172.4 m
Environment - current issues NA
Ethnic groups Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry), Portuguese, other
Exchange rates patacas per US dollar - 8.033 (January 2002), 8.034 (2001), 8.026 (2000), 7.992 (1999), 7.979 (1998), 7.975 (1997); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar
Executive branch chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of all five government secretaries, three legislators, and two businessmen

elections: chief executive chosen by a 200-member selection committee for up to two five-year terms
Exports 1 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities clothing, textiles, cement, electronics, cameras
Exports - partners US 48%, EU 28%, China 10%, Hong Kong 7% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
GDP purchasing power parity - $8 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 25%

services: 74% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $17,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.5% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 10 N, 113 33 E
Geography - note essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland
Highways total: 50 km

paved: 50 km

unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 175 million kWh (2000)
Imports $2.3 billion c.i.f. (2000)
Imports - commodities clothing, textiles, yarn, minerals, electrical machinery, fuel, livestock
Imports - partners China 41%, Hong Kong 15%, EU 10%, Taiwan 10%, Japan 6% (2000)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Infant mortality rate 4.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -2% (2001 est.)
International organization participation CCC, ESCAP (associate), IHO, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region
Labor force 218,000 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation restaurants and hotels 26%, manufacturing 20%, other services and agriculture 54% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 0.34 km

border countries: China 0.34 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100%

note: "green areas" represent 22.4% (1998 est.)
Languages Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (27 seats; 10 elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 23 September 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by political bloc - Entertainment Industry 3, pro-democracy 2, pro-Beijing Labor Union 2, pro-Beijing Neighborhood Association 2, pro-business 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 81.78 years

male: 78.97 years

female: 84.73 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90%

male: 93%

female: 86% (1981 est.)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims not specified
Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Military - note responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999
Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999; there is a local police force
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 128,005 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 70,508 (2002 est.)
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese
Natural hazards typhoons
Natural resources NEGL
Net migration rate 9.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders there are no formal political parties, however, there are civic associations that, for purposes of legislative voting, join together to form political blocs
Political pressure groups and leaders Catholic Church [Domingos LAM, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]
Population 461,833 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.75% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Macau
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 160,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Telephone system general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services

domestic: NA

international: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 176,902 (November 2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 158,251 (November 2001)
Television broadcast stations 0 (receives Hong Kong broadcasts) (1997)
Terrain generally flat
Total fertility rate 1.31 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.5% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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