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Macau (2001)

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Macau 2001 year

Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years:
22.68% (male 53,291; female 49,615)

15-64 years:
70.08% (male 150,538; female 167,431)

65 years and over:
7.24% (male 13,287; female 19,571) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, vegetables
Airports 1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
21 sq km

21 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.
Birth rate 12.36 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.26 billion

$1.22 billion, including capital expenditures of $175 million (1999 est.)
Climate subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Coastline 40 km
Constitution Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form:
Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form:

local long form:
Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

local short form:
Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
Currency pataca (MOP)
Death rate 3.71 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.7 billion (1997)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries - toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about three-fourths of export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of GDP. More than 8 million tourists visited Macau in 2000. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods. Output dropped 5% in 1998 and 3% in 1999, with a small 2% gain in 2000. Macau reverted to Chinese administration on 20 December 1999. Gang violence, a dark spot in the economy, probably will be reduced in 2000-01 to the advantage of the tourism sector.
Electricity - consumption 1.422 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 3 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 165 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 1.355 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
South China Sea 0 m

highest point:
Coloane Alto 174 m
Environment - current issues NA
Ethnic groups Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry), Portuguese, other
Exchange rates patacas per US dollar - 8.033 (January 2001), 8.025 (2000), 7.990 (1999), 7.978 (1998), 7.974 (1997), 7.966 (1996); note - linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar
Executive branch chief of state:
President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

head of government:
Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

Executive Council consists of all five government secretaries, three legislators, and two businessmen

Exports 3 million kWh (1999)
Exports $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities textiles, clothing, toys, electronics, cement, footwear, machinery
Exports - partners US 47%, EU 30%, China 9.2%, Hong Kong 6.7% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
GDP purchasing power parity - $7.82 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


74% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $17,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 10 N, 113 33 E
Geography - note essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland
Highways total:
50 km

50 km

0 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 165 million kWh (1999)
Imports $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods, fuels, consumer goods
Imports - partners China 36%, Hong Kong 18%, EU 13%, Taiwan 10%, Japan 7% (1999)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries clothing, textiles, toys, electronics, footwear, tourism, gambling
Infant mortality rate 4.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -1.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region
Labor force 283,450 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation restaurants and hotels 26%, manufacturing 22%, other services 52% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total:
0.34 km

border countries:
China 0.34 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

98% (1998 est.)
Languages Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (23 seats; 8 elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms)

last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held by 15 October 2001)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - APPEM 2, UNIPRO 2, CODEM 1, UDM 1, UPD 1, ANMD 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
81.69 years

78.88 years

84.64 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


86% (1981 est.)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims not specified
Merchant marine none (2000 est.)
Military - note responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999
Military branches Macau garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes about 500 troops
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
125,737 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
69,191 (2001 est.)
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards typhoons
Natural resources NEGL
Net migration rate 9.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders the following is a listing of those associations that participated in the last legislative elections: Associacao de Novo Macau Democratico or ANMD [leader NA]; Associacao Promotora para a Economia de Macau or APPEM [leader NA]; Convergencia para o Desenvolvimento or CODEM [leader NA]; Uniao Geral para o Desenvolvimento de Macau or UDM [leader NA]; Uniao para o Desenvolvimento or UPD [leader NA]; Uniao Promotora para o Progresso or UNIPRO [leader NA]

there are no formal political parties, but civic associations are used instead
Political pressure groups and leaders Catholic Church [Domingos LAM, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]
Population 453,733 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.79% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Macau
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 160,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female

total population:
0.92 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Telephone system general assessment:
fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services


HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 176,837 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 120,957 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 0 (receives Hong Kong broadcasts) (1997)
Terrain generally flat
Total fertility rate 1.31 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.6% (2000)
Waterways none
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