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Macau (2004)

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Macau 2004 year

Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years: 18% (male 41,460; female 38,595)

15-64 years: 74.2% (male 157,629; female 172,810)

65 years and over: 7.8% (male 14,380; female 20,412) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, livestock
Airports 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 25.4 sq km

land: 25.4 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau, and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
Birth rate 8.04 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.9 billion

expenditures: $1.68 billion, including capital expenditures of $194 million (2002)
Climate subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
Coastline 41 km
Constitution Basic Law, approved in March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Macau

local long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)

local short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
Currency pataca (MOP)
Death rate 4.23 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $121 million (2001 est.)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US the US has no offices in Macau; US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient NA (1997)
Economy - overview Macau's well-to-do economy has remained one of the most open in the world since its reversion to China in 1999. The territory's net exports of goods and services account for roughly 41% of GDP with tourism and apparel exports as the mainstays. Although the territory was hit hard by the 1998 Asian financial crisis and the global downturn in 2001, its economy grew 9.5% in 2002. A rapid rise in the number of mainland visitors because of China's easing of restrictions on travel drove the recovery. The budget also returned to surplus in 2002 because of the surge in visitors from China and a hike in taxes on gambling profits, which generated about 70% of government revenue. The liberalization of Macao's gambling monopoly contributes to GDP growth, as the three companies awarded gambling licenses have pledged to invest $2.2 billion in the territory. Much of Macau's textile industry may move to the mainland as the Multi-Fiber Agreement is phased out. The territory may have to rely more on gambling and trade-related services to generate growth. The government estimated GDP growth at 4% in 2003 with the drop in large measure due to concerns over the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), but private sector analysts think the figure may have been higher because of the continuing boom in tourism.
Electricity - consumption 1.688 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 193 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 1.611 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Coloane Alto 172.4 m
Environment - current issues NA
Ethnic groups Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry), Portuguese, other
Exchange rates patacas per US dollar - 8.0212 (2003), 8.0334 (2002), 8.0335 (2001), 8.0259 (2000), 7.9919 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)

head of government: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of all one government secretary, four legislators, four businessmen, and one pro-Beijing unionist

elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member selection committee for up to two five-year terms

election results: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected on 29 August 2004; received 296 votes in Election Committee out of 300 possible; 3 members submitted blank ballots; 1 member was absent
Exports 1 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2.356 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities clothing, textiles, footwear, cement, machines, and parts
Exports - partners US 49.4%, China 14.1%, Germany 8.1%, Hong Kong 6.7%, UK 4.5% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description light green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in center of arc and four smaller
GDP purchasing power parity - $9.1 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 12%

services: 87% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 10 N, 113 33 E
Geography - note essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland
Highways total: 271 km

paved: 271 km

unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 193 million kWh (2002)
Imports $2.53 billion c.i.f. (2002)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities clothing, textiles, yarn, foodstuffs, fuel, automobiles, capital goods
Imports - partners China 43%, Hong Kong 12.7%, Japan 8.7%, Taiwan 5.6% (2003)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Infant mortality rate total: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -2.6% (2003 est.)
International organization participation IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (sub-bureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WToO (associate), WTO
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region
Labor force 214,000 (2002)
Labor force - by occupation manufacturing 20%, construction 7%, transport and communications 6%, wholesale and retail trade 15%, restaurants and hotels 12%, gambling 7%, public sector 8%, other services and agriculture 25% (2002 est.)
Land boundaries total: 0.34 km

regional border: China 0.34 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100%

note: "green areas" represent 22.4% (2001)
Languages Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)
Legal system based on Portuguese civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (27 seats; 10 elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and sevem appointed by the chief executive; members serve four-year terms); number of legislators will increase to 29 from September 2005

elections: last held 23 September 2001 (next to be September 2005)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by political bloc - Entertainment Industry 3, pro-democracy 2, pro-Beijing Labor Union 2, pro-Beijing Neighborhood Association 2, pro-business 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 82.03 years

male: 79.2 years

female: 84.99 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 94.5%

male: 97.2%

female: 92% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims not specified
Merchant marine none
Military branches responsibility for defense reverted to China on 20 December 1999; there are local police forces
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 125,060 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 68,913 (2004 est.)
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese
Natural hazards typhoons
Natural resources NEGL
Net migration rate 4.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Some civic associations operate as de facto political parties: Electoral Union; Pro-Macao and Flower of Friendship and Development of Macao; Associacao para a Defesa dos Interesses de Macao; Centro Democratico de Macao; Grupo Independente de Macao; Macau Economic Promotion Association; Progress Promotion Union; Development Union
Political pressure groups and leaders Catholic Church [LAI Hung-sing, bishop]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]
Population 445,286 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.87% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Macau
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Telephone system general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services

domestic: NA

international: country code - 853; HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 174,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 364,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2003)
Terrain generally flat
Total fertility rate 0.93 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.3% (2003)
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