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Laos (2008)

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Laos 2008 roku

 Laos
Podzial administracyjny 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural) and 1 capital city* (nakhon luang, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamxai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louangnamtha, Louangphrabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Salavan, Savannakhet, Viangchan (Vientiane)*, Viangchan, Xaignabouli, Xekong, Xiangkhoang
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 41.2% (male 1,349,352/female 1,338,252)


15-64 years: 55.7% (male 1,795,029/female 1,835,168)


65 years and over: 3.1% (male 90,188/female 114,009) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, tea, peanuts, rice; water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry
Lotniska 42 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 9


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 33


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 23 (2007)
Terytorium total: 236,800 sq km


land: 230,800 sq km


water: 6,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Utah
Tlo historyczne Modern-day Laos has its roots w the ancient Lao kingdom of Lan Xang, established w the 14th Century under King FA NGUM. For three hundred years Lan Xang had influence reaching into present-day Kambodza and Tajlandia, as well as over all of what is now Laos. After centuries of gradual decline, Laos came under the domination of Siam (Tajlandia) from the late 18th century until the late 19th century when it became part of French Indochina. The Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1907 defined the current Lao border z Tajlandia. In 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao took control of the government ending a six-century-old monarchy and instituting a strict socialist regime closely aligned to Wietnam. A gradual return to private enterprise and the liberalization of foreign investment laws began w 1986. Laos became a member of ASEAN w 1997.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 34.98 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $470.4 million


expenditures: $643.5 million (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Vientiane


geographic coordinates: 17 58 N, 102 36 E


time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical monsoon; rainy season (maj to listopad); dry season (grudzien to kwiecien)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja promulgated 14 sierpien 1991
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Lao People's Democratic Republic


conventional short form: Laos


local long form: Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao


local short form: none
Wspolczynnik zgonow 11.28 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.179 billion (2006)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ravic R. HUSO


embassy: 19 Rue Bartholonie, That Dam, Vientiane


mailing address: American Embassy Vientiane, APO AP 96546


telephone: [856] 21-26-7000


FAX: [856] 21-26-7190
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador PHIANE Philakone


chancery: 2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 332-6416


FAX: [1] (202) 332-4923
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation z Tajlandia but disputes remain over islands w the Mekong River; concern among Mekong Commission members that Chiny's construction of dams on the Mekong River will affect water levels
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $379 million (2006 est.)
Ekonomia The government of Laos, one of the few remaining one-party Communist states, began decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise w 1986. The results, starting from an extremely low base, were striking - growth averaged 6% per year w 1988-2007 except during the short-lived drop caused by the Asian financial crisis beginning w 1997. Despite this high growth rate, Laos remains a country z a underdeveloped infrastructure, particularly w rural areas. It has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, and limited external and internal telecommunications, though the government is sponsoring major improvements w the road system z support from Japonia and Chiny. Electricity is available w urban areas and w most rural districts. Subsistence agriculture, dominated by rice, accounts dla about 40% of Produkt krajowy brutto and provides 80% of total employment. The economy will continue to benefit from aid from international donors and from foreign investment w hydropower and mining. Construction will be another strong economic driver, especially as hydroelectric dam and road projects gain steam. Several policy changes since 2004 may help spur growth. In late 2004, Laos gained Normal Trade Relations status z the US, allowing Laos-based producers to benefit from lower tariffs on exports. Laos is taking steps to join the Swiat Trade Organization w the next few years; the resulting trade policy reforms will improve the business environment. On the fiscal side, a value-added tax (VAT) regime, slated to begin w 2008, should help streamline the government's inefficient tax system.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 1.193 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 728 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 326 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.715 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mekong River 70 m


highest point: Phou Bia 2,817 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy unexploded ordnance; deforestation; soil erosion; most of the population does not have access to potable water
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Lao Loum (lowland) 68%, Lao Theung (upland) 22%, Lao Soung (highland) including the Hmong and the Yao 9%, ethnic Wietnamese/Chinese 1%
Kurs waluty kips per US dollar - 9,658 (2007), 10,235 (2006), 10,820 (2005), 10,585.5 (2004), 10,569 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Lt. Gen. CHOUMMALI Saignason (since 8 czerwiec 2006); Vice President BOUN-GNANG Volachit (since 8 czerwiec 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister BOUASONE Bouphavanh (since 8 czerwiec 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Maj. Gen. ASANG Laoli (since maj 2002), Maj. Gen. DOUANGCHAI Phichit (since 8 czerwiec 2006), SOMSAVAT Lengsavat (since 26 luty 1998), and THONGLOUN Sisoulit (since 27 marzec 2001)


cabinet: Ministers appointed by president, approved by National Assembly


elections: president and vice president elected by National Assembly dla five-year terms; election last held 8 czerwiec 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister nominated by president and elected by National Assembly dla five-year term


election results: CHOUMMALI Saignason elected president; BOUN-GNANG Volachit elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%; BOUASONE Bouphavanh elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 97%
Eksport 728 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $720.9 million (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary wood products, coffee, electricity, tin, copper, gold
Eksport - partnerzy Tajlandia 42.1%, Wietnam 9.5%, Chiny 4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 pazdziernik - 30 wrzesien
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red z a large white disk centered w the blue band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 41.2%


industry: 32.5%


services: 26.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 18 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; most of the country is mountainous and thickly forested; the Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary z Tajlandia
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.4%


highest 10%: 28.5% (2002)
Narkotyki estimated opium poppy cultivation w 2005 was 5,600 hectares, about a 45% decrease from 2004; estimated potential opium production w 2005 was 28 metric tons, a significant decrease from 200 metric tons w 2003; unsubstantiated reports of domestic methamphetamine production; growing domestic methamphetamine problem
Import 326 million kWh (2005)
Import $1.199 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 2,898 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods
Import - partnerzy Tajlandia 68.8%, Chiny 11.3%, Wietnam 5.6% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 19 lipiec 1949 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12% (2007 est.)
Przemysl copper, tin, gold, and gypsum mining; timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments, tourism, cement
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 81.44 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 90.91 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 71.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ADB, APT, ARF, ASEAN, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 1,750 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo People's Supreme Court (the president of the People's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee; the vice president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee)
Sila robocza 2.1 million (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%


industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
Granica total: 5,083 km


border countries: Birma 235 km, Kambodza 541 km, Chiny 423 km, Tajlandia 1,754 km, Wietnam 2,130 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 4.01%


permanent crops: 0.34%


other: 95.65% (2005)
Jezyki Lao (official), French, English, and various ethnic languages
System prawny based on traditional customs, French legal norms and procedures, and socialist practice; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (115 seats; members elected by popular vote from a list of candidates selected by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 30 kwiecien 2006 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPRP 113, independents 2
Zywotnosc total population: 55.89 years


male: 53.82 years


female: 58.04 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 68.7%


male: 77%


female: 60.9% (2001 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Asia, northeast of Tajlandia, west of Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Southeast Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 2,370 GRT/3,110 DWT


by type: cargo 1 (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi Laos is one of the world's least developed countries; the Lao People's Armed Forces are small, poorly funded, and ineffectively resourced; there is little political will to allocate sparse funding to the military, and the armed forces' gradual degradation is likely to continue; the massive drug production and trafficking industry centered w the Golden Triangle makes Laos an important narcotics transit country, and armed Wa and Chinese smugglers are active on the Lao-Birma border (2005)
Wojsko Lao People's Armed Forces (LPAF): Lao People's Army (LPA; includes Riverine Force), Air Force (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.5% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 2 grudzien (1975)
Narodowosc noun: Lao(s) or Laotian(s)


adjective: Lao or Laotian
Naturalne zagrozenia floods, droughts
Surowce naturalne timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold, gemstones
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi refined products 540 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [CHOUMMALI Saignason]; other parties proscribed
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow political parties and groups other than LPRP are proscribed
Ludnosc 6,521,998 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 30.7% (2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.37% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 14, shortwave 2 (2006)
Religie Buddhist 65%, animist 32.9%, Christian 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.8% (1995 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.008 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.978 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.791 male(s)/female


total population: 0.984 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: service to general public is poor but improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate z remote areas


domestic: multiple service providers; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership about 10 per 100 persons


international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 90,067 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 638,200 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 7 (includes 1 station relaying Wietnam Television from Hanoi) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.59 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 2.4% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 4,600 km


note: primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,900 additional km are intermittently navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m (2007)
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