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Seychelles (2008)

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Seychelles 2008 year

Administrative divisions 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Age structure 0-14 years: 25.4% (male 10,504/female 10,272)

15-64 years: 68.5% (male 27,405/female 28,706)

65 years and over: 6.1% (male 1,590/female 3,418) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; poultry; tuna
Airports 15 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Area total: 455 sq km

land: 455 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was re-elected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term.
Birth rate 15.83 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $380.9 million

expenditures: $361.2 million (2007 est.)
Capital name: Victoria

geographic coordinates: 4 38 S, 55 27 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Coastline 491 km
Constitution 18 June 1993
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles

conventional short form: Seychelles

local long form: Republic of Seychelles

local short form: Seychelles
Death rate 6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $957 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jean Ronald JUMEAU

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785

FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
Disputes - international together with Mauritius, Seychelles claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)
Economic aid - recipient $18.81 million (2005)
Economy - overview Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the upper-middle income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. Sharp drops illustrated the vulnerability of the tourist sector in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf War and once again following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. Economic growth slowed in 1998-2002 and fell in 2003-04, due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors, but resumed in 2005-07. Real GDP grew by 5.8% in 2007, driven by tourism and a boom in tourism-related construction. The Seychelles rupee was allowed to depreciate in 2006 after being overvalued for years and fell by 10% in the first 9 months of 2007.
Electricity - consumption 193.4 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 208 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m
Environment - current issues water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
Exchange rates Seychelles rupees per US dollar - 6.5 (2007), 5.5 (2006), 5.5 (2005), 5.5 (2004), 5.4007 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President James MICHEL (since 14 April 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 28-30 July 2006 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: President James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 53.73%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 45.71%, Philippe BOULLE 0.56%; note - this was the first election in which President James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn in as president after former president France Albert RENE stepped down in April 2004
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $434 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities canned tuna, frozen fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)
Exports - partners UK 25.5%, France 17.5%, Italy 11.9%, Mauritius 8.5%, Japan 8.3%, Spain 8.2%, Netherlands 4.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.4%

industry: 25.6%

services: 72% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.8% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 35 S, 55 40 E
Geography - note 41 granitic and about 75 coralline islands
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $721 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 5,800 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 17.7%, South Africa 9.7%, Spain 8.1%, France 7.8%, Singapore 7.2%, Italy 4.8%, UK 4% (2006)
Independence 29 June 1976 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 1% (2007 est.)
Industries fishing, tourism, processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages
Infant mortality rate total: 14.75 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 18.67 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.9% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Labor force 30,900 (1996)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 10%

industry: 19%

services: 71% (1989)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2.17%

permanent crops: 13.04%

other: 84.79% (2005)
Languages Creole 91.8%, English 4.9% (official), other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2002 census)
Legal system based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 10-12 May 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 56.2%, SNP 43.8%; seats by party - SPPF 23, SNP 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.34 years

male: 66.98 years

female: 77.86 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.8%

male: 91.4%

female: 92.3% (2002 census)
Location archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 6 ships (1000 GRT or over) 108,348 GRT/165,593 DWT

by type: cargo 1, carrier 1, chemical tanker 4

foreign-owned: 3 (Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 1, South Africa 1) (2007)
Military branches Seychelles Defense Force: Army, Coast Guard (includes Naval Wing, Air Wing), National Guard (2005)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2006 est.)
National holiday Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993)
Nationality noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychellois
Natural hazards lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible
Natural resources fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Net migration rate -5.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW]; Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO); Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE, James MICHEL] (the governing party)
Political pressure groups and leaders Roman Catholic Church; trade unions
Population 81,895 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.432% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 2 (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 82.3%, Anglican 6.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.1%, other Christian 3.4%, Hindu 2.1%, Muslim 1.1%, other non-Christian 1.5%, unspecified 1.5%, none 0.6% (2002 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.023 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.955 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.465 male(s)/female

total population: 0.932 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 17 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: effective system

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 20,700 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 70,300 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Total fertility rate 1.74 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
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