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Seychelles (2002)

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Seychelles 2002 year

Administrative divisions 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 11,238; female 11,002)

15-64 years: 66% (male 25,763; female 27,086)

65 years and over: 6.2% (male 1,667; female 3,342) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish
Airports 14 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Area total: 455 sq km

land: 455 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993.
Birth rate 17.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $249 million

expenditures: $262 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.) (1998 est.)
Capital Victoria
Climate tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Coastline 491 km
Constitution 18 June 1993
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles

conventional short form: Seychelles
Currency Seychelles rupee (SCR)
Death rate 6.57 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $240 million (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to the Seychelles
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Claude Sylvestre MOREL

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785

FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
Disputes - international claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)
Economic aid - recipient $16.4 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war and once again following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. Other issues facing the government are the curbing of the budget deficit, including the containment of social welfare costs, and further privatization of public enterprises. Growth slowed in 1998-2001, due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors. Also, tight controls on exchange rates and the scarcity of foreign exchange have impaired short-term economic prospects. The black market value of the Seychelles rupee is half the official exchange rate; without a devaluation of the currency the tourist sector should remain sluggish as vacationers seek cheaper destinations such as Comoros, Mauritius, and Madagascar.
Electricity - consumption 148.8 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 160 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m
Environment - current issues water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
Exchange rates Seychelles rupees per US dollar - 5.7458 (January 2002), 5.8575 (2001), 5.7138 (2000), 5.3426 (1999), 5.2622 (1998), 5.0263 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 31 August-2 September 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: France Albert RENE reelected president; percent of vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 54.19%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 44.95%, Philippe BOULLE 0.86%; note - the first time that presidential elections have been held separately from legislative elections
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $182.6 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities canned tuna, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)
Exports - partners UK 48.1%, Italy 23.1%, France 14.8%, Netherlands 2.7% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side
GDP purchasing power parity - $605 million (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3%

industry: 26%

services: 71% (1999) (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $7,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 35 S, 55 40 E
Geography - note 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands
Highways total: 280 km

paved: 176 km

unpaved: 104 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $360.2 million f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners Italy 13.3%, South Africa 10.7%, France 9.9%, UK 8.0%, Singapore 7.7% (1999)
Independence 29 June 1976 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages
Infant mortality rate 16.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.1% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Labor force 30,900 (1996) (1996)
Labor force - by occupation industry 19%, services 71%, agriculture 10% (1989) (1989)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2.22%

permanent crops: 13.33%

other: 84.45% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), French (official), Creole
Legal system based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats - 25 elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 4-6 December 2002 (next held by 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 54.3%, SNP 42.6%, DP 3.1%; seats by party - SPPF 23, SNP 11

note: the 9 awarded seats are apportioned according to the percentage that each party won of the total vote
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.97 years

male: 65.48 years

female: 76.63 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 58%

male: 56%

female: 60% (1971 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,086 GRT/10,192 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: South Africa 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Coast Guard (includes Air Wing), Presidential Protection Unit (includes Presidential Guard), Police Force (includes Police Mobile Unit, a special weapons and tactics unit capable of assisting the Army in maintaining internal stability)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $11 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 23,210 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 11,554 (2002 est.)
National holiday Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993)
Nationality noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychellois
Natural hazards lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible
Natural resources fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Net migration rate -5.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM]; Seychelles National Party or SNP (formerly the United Opposition or UO) [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]; Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE] - the governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders Roman Catholic Church; trade unions
Population 80,098 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.47% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Victoria
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 42,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 86.6%, Anglican 6.8%, other Christian 2.5%, other 4.1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 17 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: effective system

domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

international: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 19,635 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 16,316 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Total fertility rate 1.81 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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