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Seychelles (2005)

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Seychelles 2005 year

Administrative divisions 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand' Anse (on Mahe), Grand' Anse (on Praslin), La Digue, La Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe La Rue, Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Age structure 0-14 years: 26.4% (male 10,839/female 10,601)

15-64 years: 67.4% (male 26,709/female 28,025)

65 years and over: 6.2% (male 1,622/female 3,392) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fish
Airports 15 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Area total: 455 sq km

land: 455 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. The most recent presidential elections were held in 2001; President RENE, who had served since 1977, was re-elected. In April 2004 RENE stepped down and Vice President James MICHEL was sworn in as president.
Birth rate 16.22 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $318.3 million

expenditures: $298.5 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Victoria
Climate tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Coastline 491 km
Constitution 18 June 1993
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles

conventional short form: Seychelles
Death rate 6.34 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $218.1 million (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to the Seychelles
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Claude Sylvestre MOREL

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785

FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
Disputes - international together with Mauritius, Seychelles claims the Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)
Economic aid - recipient $16.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the old near-subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. A sharp drop illustrated the vulnerability of the tourist sector in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war, and once again following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the US. Growth slowed in 1998-2002, and fell in 2003, due to sluggish tourist and tuna sectors, but resumed in 2004, erasing a persistent budget deficit. Tight controls on exchange rates and the scarcity of foreign exchange have impaired short-term economic prospects. The black market value of the Seychelles rupee is half the official exchange rate; without a devaluation of the currency the tourist sector may remain sluggish as vacationers seek cheaper destinations such as Comoros, Mauritius, and Madagascar.
Electricity - consumption 202.8 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 218 million kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m
Environment - current issues water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
Exchange rates Seychelles rupees per US dollar - 5.5 (2004), 5.4007 (2003), 5.48 (2002), 5.8575 (2001), 5.7138 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President James MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President James MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 31 August-2 September 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: France Albert RENE re-elected president; percent of vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 54.19%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (UO) 44.95%, Philippe BOULLE 0.86%; note - the first time that presidential elections have been held separately from legislative elections; France Albert RENE stepped down 14 April 2004 and Vice President James MICHEL was sworn in as president
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $256.2 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities canned tuna, frozen fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)
Exports - partners UK 27.7%, France 15.8%, Spain 12.6%, Japan 8.6%, Italy 7.5%, Germany 5.6% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.8%

industry: 28.7%

services: 68.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $7,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 4 35 S, 55 40 E
Geography - note 41 granitic and about 75 coralline islands
Highways total: 373 km

paved: 315 km

unpaved: 58 km (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $393.4 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners Saudi Arabia 15.5%, Spain 13.3%, France 10.3%, Singapore 7%, South Africa 6.8%, Italy 6.7%, UK 4.7% (2004)
Independence 29 June 1976 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries fishing; tourism; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages
Infant mortality rate total: 15.53 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 19.65 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2004 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Labor force 30,900 (1996)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 10%, industry 19%, services 71% (1989)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 2.22%

permanent crops: 13.33%

other: 84.45% (2001)
Languages Creole 91.8%, English 4.9% (official), other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2002 census)
Legal system based on English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats - 25 elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 4-6 December 2002 (next to be held by 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 54.3%, SNP 42.6%, DP 3.1%; seats by party - SPPF 23, SNP 11

note: the 9 awarded seats are apportioned according to the percentage that each party won of the total vote
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.82 years

male: 66.41 years

female: 77.4 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.9%

male: 91.4%

female: 92.3% (2003 est.)
Location archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 42,223 GRT/63,538 DWT

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Nigeria 1) (2005)
Military branches Seychelles Defense Force: Army, Coast Guard (includes Navy Wing, Air Wing), National Guard (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $12.3 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (2004)
National holiday Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993)
Nationality noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychellois
Natural hazards lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible
Natural resources fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Net migration rate -5.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Daniel BELLE]; Mouvement Seychellois pour la Democratie [Jacques HODOUL]; Seychelles National Party or SNP (formerly the United Opposition or UO) [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]; Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE, James MICHEL] - the governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders Roman Catholic Church; trade unions
Population 81,188 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.43% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Victoria
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 82.3%, Anglican 6.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.1%, other Christian 3.4%, Hindu 2.1%, Muslim 1.1%, other non-Christian 1.5%, unspecified 1.5%, none 0.6% (2002 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 17 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: effective system

domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 21,700 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 54,500 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Total fertility rate 1.75 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate NA
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