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Ghana (2008)

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Ghana 2008 year

Administrative divisions 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 38.2% (male 4,438,308/female 4,329,293)

15-64 years: 58.2% (male 6,661,512/female 6,687,738)

65 years and over: 3.6% (male 380,495/female 433,953) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Airports 12 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Area total: 239,460 sq km

land: 230,940 sq km

water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was re-elected in 2004. Kufuor is constitutionally barred from running for a third term in upcoming Presidential elections, which are scheduled for December 2008.
Birth rate 29.85 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.347 billion

expenditures: $5.197 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Accra

geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Coastline 539 km
Constitution approved 28 April 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

conventional short form: Ghana

former: Gold Coast
Death rate 9.55 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $3.387 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela E. BRIDGEWATER

embassy: 24 4th Circular Rd. Cantonments, Accra

mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra

telephone: [233] (21) 741-000

FAX: [233] (21) 741-389
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Kwame BAWUAH-EDUSEI

chancery: 1156 15th St. NW #905, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1379

FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire
Economic aid - recipient $1.316 billion in loans and grants (2007)
Economy - overview Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorest countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold and cocoa production, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and employs about 55% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. Thematic priorities under its current Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy, which also provides the framework for development partner assistance, are: macroeconomic stability; private sector competitiveness; human resource development; and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with high prices for gold and cocoa helped sustain GDP growth in 2007. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural sector.
Electricity - consumption 6.906 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports 256 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports 461 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production 7.042 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Environment - current issues recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% (2000 census)
Exchange rates cedis per US dollar - 0.95 (2007), 9,174.8 (2006), 9,072.5 (2005), 9,004.6 (2004), 8,677.4 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2008)

election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 52.4%, John ATTA-MILLS 44.6%
Exports 256 million kWh (2007 est.)
Exports $4.194 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 8,041 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticulture
Exports - partners Netherlands 11.3%, UK 8.7%, US 6.7%, Spain 5.7%, Belgium 5.2%, France 4.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 37.3%

industry: 25.3%

services: 37.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.2% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
Imports 461 million kWh (2007 est.)
Imports $8.073 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 45,010 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Nigeria 16.7%, China 13%, UK 5.7%, Belgium 4.7%, US 4.7%, South Africa 4.1%, France 4.1% (2006)
Independence 6 March 1957 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7.4% (2007 est.)
Industries mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
Infant mortality rate total: 53.56 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 58 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 48.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11% (2007 est.)
Irrigated land 310 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 11.29 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 56%

industry: 15%

services: 29% (2005 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,094 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Land use arable land: 17.54%

permanent crops: 9.22%

other: 73.24% (2005)
Languages Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other 36.1% (includes English (official)) (2000 census)
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (230 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December in 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 128, NDC 94, PNC 4, CPP 3, independent 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 59.12 years

male: 58.31 years

female: 59.95 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 57.9%

male: 66.4%

female: 49.8% (2000 census)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 3 ships (1000 GRT or over) 5,032 GRT/7,282 DWT

by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2

foreign-owned: 1 (Brazil 1) (2007)
Military branches Ghanaian Army, Ghanaian Navy, Ghanaian Air Force (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (2006 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Nationality noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian
Natural hazards dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Natural resources gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Net migration rate -0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines oil 13 km; refined products 316 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Convention People's Party or CPP [Ladi NYLANDER]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTEY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter MAC-MANU]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles WAYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 22,931,299

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 28.5% (2007 est.)
Population growth rate 1.972% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 86, shortwave 3 (2007)
Railways total: 953 km

narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Religions Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.025 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.996 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.877 male(s)/female

total population: 1.003 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fixed-line infrastructure outdated and unreliable; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with subscribership about 25 per 100 persons and rising

domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed

international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors
Telephones - main lines in use 356,400 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5.207 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 7 (2007)
Terrain mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Total fertility rate 3.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 11% (2000 est.)
Waterways 1,293 km

note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2007)
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